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Paracondylar Process
Kevin R. Moore, MD; Jeffrey S. Ross, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Clinical Issues

          • Diagnostic Checklist

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Synonyms

              • Paramastoid process, paroccipital process, jugular process, parajugular process
            • Definitions

              • Enlarged bony process of cranial base projecting caudally to transverse process of atlas (C1)
              • Epitransverse process is mirror image process and arises from transverse process of atlas and projects cephalad to occipital condyle
              • Uncommon variant (~ 0.5%)

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • CT Findings

                DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                  PATHOLOGY

                  • General Features

                    CLINICAL ISSUES

                    • Presentation

                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                      • Consider

                        Selected References

                        1. Schumacher M et al: Paramastoid process: literature review of its anatomy and clinical implications. World Neurosurg. 117:261-3, 2018
                        2. Isidro A et al: Surgical treatment for an uncommon headache: a gap of 4800 years. Cephalalgia. 37(11):1098-101, 2017
                        3. Murlimanju BV et al: The paracondylar skull base: anatomical variants and their clinical implications. Turk Neurosurg. 25(6):844-9, 2015
                        4. Stathis G et al: Paracondylar process, a rare normal variant: the value of MRI in the diagnosis. Surg Radiol Anat. 34(3):281-4, 2012
                        5. Mellado JM et al: MDCT of variations and anomalies of the neural arch and its processes: part 2--articular processes, transverse processes, and high cervical spine. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 197(1):W114-21, 2011
                        6. McCall T et al: Symptomatic occipitocervical paracondylar process. J Neurosurg Spine. 12(1):9-12, 2010
                        7. Shah MJ et al: Surgical removal of a symptomatic paracondylar process. J Neurosurg Spine. 10(5):474-5, 2009
                        8. de Graauw N et al: The paracondylar process: an unusual and treatable cause of posttraumatic headache. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 33(9):E283-6, 2008
                        9. Hanihara T et al: Frequency variations of discrete cranial traits in major human populations. III. Hyperostotic variations. J Anat. 199(Pt 3):251-72, 2001
                        10. Prescher A et al: Anatomic and radiologic appearance of several variants of the craniocervical junction. Skull Base Surg. 6(2):83-94, 1996
                        11. Smoker WR: Craniovertebral junction: normal anatomy, craniometry, and congenital anomalies. Radiographics. 14(2):255-77, 1994
                        Related Anatomy
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                        Related Differential Diagnoses
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                        References
                        Tables

                        Tables

                        KEY FACTS

                        • Terminology

                          • Imaging

                            • Top Differential Diagnoses

                              • Clinical Issues

                                • Diagnostic Checklist

                                  TERMINOLOGY

                                  • Synonyms

                                    • Paramastoid process, paroccipital process, jugular process, parajugular process
                                  • Definitions

                                    • Enlarged bony process of cranial base projecting caudally to transverse process of atlas (C1)
                                    • Epitransverse process is mirror image process and arises from transverse process of atlas and projects cephalad to occipital condyle
                                    • Uncommon variant (~ 0.5%)

                                  IMAGING

                                  • General Features

                                    • CT Findings

                                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                        PATHOLOGY

                                        • General Features

                                          CLINICAL ISSUES

                                          • Presentation

                                            DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                            • Consider

                                              Selected References

                                              1. Schumacher M et al: Paramastoid process: literature review of its anatomy and clinical implications. World Neurosurg. 117:261-3, 2018
                                              2. Isidro A et al: Surgical treatment for an uncommon headache: a gap of 4800 years. Cephalalgia. 37(11):1098-101, 2017
                                              3. Murlimanju BV et al: The paracondylar skull base: anatomical variants and their clinical implications. Turk Neurosurg. 25(6):844-9, 2015
                                              4. Stathis G et al: Paracondylar process, a rare normal variant: the value of MRI in the diagnosis. Surg Radiol Anat. 34(3):281-4, 2012
                                              5. Mellado JM et al: MDCT of variations and anomalies of the neural arch and its processes: part 2--articular processes, transverse processes, and high cervical spine. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 197(1):W114-21, 2011
                                              6. McCall T et al: Symptomatic occipitocervical paracondylar process. J Neurosurg Spine. 12(1):9-12, 2010
                                              7. Shah MJ et al: Surgical removal of a symptomatic paracondylar process. J Neurosurg Spine. 10(5):474-5, 2009
                                              8. de Graauw N et al: The paracondylar process: an unusual and treatable cause of posttraumatic headache. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 33(9):E283-6, 2008
                                              9. Hanihara T et al: Frequency variations of discrete cranial traits in major human populations. III. Hyperostotic variations. J Anat. 199(Pt 3):251-72, 2001
                                              10. Prescher A et al: Anatomic and radiologic appearance of several variants of the craniocervical junction. Skull Base Surg. 6(2):83-94, 1996
                                              11. Smoker WR: Craniovertebral junction: normal anatomy, craniometry, and congenital anomalies. Radiographics. 14(2):255-77, 1994