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Paracondylar Process
Jeffrey S. Ross, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Clinical Issues

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Synonyms

            • Paramastoid process, paroccipital process, jugular process, parajugular process
          • Definitions

            • Enlarged bony process of cranial base projecting caudally to transverse process of atlas (C1)
            • Epitransverse process is mirror image process and arises from transverse process of atlas and projects cephalad to occipital condyle
            • Uncommon variant (approximately 0.5%)

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • CT Findings

              DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                PATHOLOGY

                • General Features

                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                  • Presentation

                    Selected References

                    1. Stathis G et al: Paracondylar process, a rare normal variant: the value of MRI in the diagnosis. Surg Radiol Anat. 34(3):281-4, 2012
                    2. Mellado JM et al: MDCT of variations and anomalies of the neural arch and its processes: part 2--articular processes, transverse processes, and high cervical spine. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 197(1):W114-21, 2011
                    3. McCall T et al: Symptomatic occipitocervical paracondylar process. J Neurosurg Spine. 12(1):9-12, 2010
                    4. Shah MJ et al: Surgical removal of a symptomatic paracondylar process. J Neurosurg Spine. 10(5):474-5, 2009
                    5. de Graauw N et al: The paracondylar process: an unusual and treatable cause of posttraumatic headache. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 33(9):E283-6, 2008
                    6. Hanihara T et al: Frequency variations of discrete cranial traits in major human populations. III. Hyperostotic variations. J Anat. 199(Pt 3):251-72, 2001
                    7. Prescher A et al: Anatomic and radiologic appearance of several variants of the craniocervical junction. Skull Base Surg. 6(2):83-94, 1996
                    8. Smoker WR: Craniovertebral junction: normal anatomy, craniometry, and congenital anomalies. Radiographics. 14(2):255-77, 1994
                    Related Anatomy
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                    Related Differential Diagnoses
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                    References
                    Tables

                    Tables

                    KEY FACTS

                    • Terminology

                      • Imaging

                        • Top Differential Diagnoses

                          • Clinical Issues

                            TERMINOLOGY

                            • Synonyms

                              • Paramastoid process, paroccipital process, jugular process, parajugular process
                            • Definitions

                              • Enlarged bony process of cranial base projecting caudally to transverse process of atlas (C1)
                              • Epitransverse process is mirror image process and arises from transverse process of atlas and projects cephalad to occipital condyle
                              • Uncommon variant (approximately 0.5%)

                            IMAGING

                            • General Features

                              • CT Findings

                                DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                  PATHOLOGY

                                  • General Features

                                    CLINICAL ISSUES

                                    • Presentation

                                      Selected References

                                      1. Stathis G et al: Paracondylar process, a rare normal variant: the value of MRI in the diagnosis. Surg Radiol Anat. 34(3):281-4, 2012
                                      2. Mellado JM et al: MDCT of variations and anomalies of the neural arch and its processes: part 2--articular processes, transverse processes, and high cervical spine. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 197(1):W114-21, 2011
                                      3. McCall T et al: Symptomatic occipitocervical paracondylar process. J Neurosurg Spine. 12(1):9-12, 2010
                                      4. Shah MJ et al: Surgical removal of a symptomatic paracondylar process. J Neurosurg Spine. 10(5):474-5, 2009
                                      5. de Graauw N et al: The paracondylar process: an unusual and treatable cause of posttraumatic headache. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 33(9):E283-6, 2008
                                      6. Hanihara T et al: Frequency variations of discrete cranial traits in major human populations. III. Hyperostotic variations. J Anat. 199(Pt 3):251-72, 2001
                                      7. Prescher A et al: Anatomic and radiologic appearance of several variants of the craniocervical junction. Skull Base Surg. 6(2):83-94, 1996
                                      8. Smoker WR: Craniovertebral junction: normal anatomy, craniometry, and congenital anomalies. Radiographics. 14(2):255-77, 1994