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Paraganglioma
Jeffrey S. Ross, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            • Diagnostic Checklist

              TERMINOLOGY

              • Synonyms

                • Glomus tumor
                • Extraadrenal pheochromocytoma
                • Chemodectoma
              • Definitions

                • Paraganglioma presenting as intradural extramedullary mass within cauda equina

              IMAGING

              • General Features

                • CT Findings

                  • MR Findings

                    • Angiographic Findings

                      • Nonvascular Interventions

                        • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                          • Imaging Recommendations

                            DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                              PATHOLOGY

                              • General Features

                                • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                  • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                    • Microscopic Features

                                      CLINICAL ISSUES

                                      • Presentation

                                        • Demographics

                                          • Natural History & Prognosis

                                            • Treatment

                                              DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                              • Consider

                                                • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                  Selected References

                                                  1. Mishra T et al: Primary paraganglioma of the spine: A clinicopathological study of eight cases. J Craniovertebr Junction Spine. 5(1):20-4, 2014
                                                  2. Simpson LN et al: Catecholamine-secreting paraganglioma of the thoracic spinal column: report of an unusual case and review of the literature. Neurosurgery. 70(4):E1049-52; discussion E1052, 2012
                                                  3. Ardon H et al: Paraganglioma of the cauda equina region: A report of three cases. Surg Neurol Int. 2:96, 2011
                                                  4. Makhdoomi R et al: Primary spinal paragangliomas: a review. Neurosurgery Quarterly. 19(3):196-9, 2009
                                                  5. Rodesch G et al: Embolization of intradural vascular spinal cord tumors : report of five cases and review of the literature. Neuroradiology. 50(2):145-51, 2008
                                                  6. Aydin AL et al: Chemodectoma presenting with dorsal vertebral metastasis. Neurosurgery Quarterly. 16(1):32-4, 2006
                                                  7. Walsh JC et al: Paraganglioma of the cauda equina: a case report and literature review. Surgeon. 3(2):113-6, 2005
                                                  8. Sankhla S et al: Cauda equina paraganglioma presenting with intracranial hypertension: case report and review of the literature. Neurol India. 52(2):243-4, 2004
                                                  9. Jeffs GJ et al: Functioning paraganglioma of the thoracic spine: case report. Neurosurgery. 53(4):992-4; discussion 954-5, 2003
                                                  10. Lazaro B et al: Malignant paraganglioma with vertebral metastasis: case report. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 61(2B):463-7, 2003
                                                  11. Houten JK et al: Thoracic paraganglioma presenting with spinal cord compression and metastases. J Spinal Disord Tech. 15(4):319-23, 2002
                                                  12. U-King-Im JM et al: Vertebral metastatic chemodectoma: imaging and therapeutic octreotide. Case report. J Neurosurg. 97(1 Suppl):106-9, 2002
                                                  13. Kim SH et al: Oncocytoma of the spinal cord. Case report. J Neurosurg. 94(2 Suppl):310-2, 2001
                                                  14. Lalloo ST et al: Clinics in diagnostic imaging (68). Intradural extramedullary spinal paraganglioma. Singapore Med J. 42(12):592-5, 2001
                                                  15. Masuoka J et al: Germline SDHD mutation in paraganglioma of the spinal cord. Oncogene. 20(36):5084-6, 2001
                                                  16. Shin JY et al: MR findings of the spinal paraganglioma : report of three cases. J Korean Med Sci. 16(4):522-6, 2001
                                                  17. Hamilton MA et al: Metastatic paraganglioma causing spinal cord compression. Br J Radiol. 73(872):901-4, 2000
                                                  18. Taira H et al: MR appearance of paraganglioma of the cauda equina. Case reports. Acta Radiol. 41(1):27-30, 2000
                                                  19. Arbelaez A et al: Hemangioblastoma of the filum terminale: MR imaging. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 173(3):857-8, 1999
                                                  20. Sundgren P et al: Paragangliomas of the spinal canal. Neuroradiology. 41(10):788-94, 1999
                                                  21. Tibbs RE Jr et al: Hemangioblastoma of the filum terminale: case report. Neurosurgery. 44(1):221-3, 1999
                                                  22. Ashkenazi E et al: Paraganglioma of the filum terminale: case report and literature review. J Spinal Disord. 11(6):540-2, 1998
                                                  23. Herman M et al: Paraganglioma of the cauda equina: case report and review of the MRI features. Acta Univ Palacki Olomuc Fac Med. 141:27-30, 1998
                                                  24. Paleologos TS et al: Paraganglioma of the cauda equina: a case presenting features of increased intracranial pressure. J Spinal Disord. 11(4):362-5, 1998
                                                  25. Faro SH et al: Paraganglioma of the cauda equina with associated intramedullary cyst: MR findings. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 18(8):1588-90, 1997
                                                  26. Hopster DJ et al: Widespread neuroendocrine malignancy within the central nervous system: a diagnostic conundrum. J Clin Pathol. 50(5):440-2, 1997
                                                  27. Moran CA et al: Primary spinal paragangliomas: a clinicopathological and immunohistochemical study of 30 cases. Histopathology. 31(2):167-73, 1997
                                                  28. Boncoeur-Martel MP et al: MRI of paraganglioma of the filum terminale. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 20(1):162-5, 1996
                                                  29. Campbell L et al: Improved detection of disseminated pheochromocytoma using post therapy I-131 MIBG scanning. Clin Nucl Med. 21(12):960-3, 1996
                                                  30. Fitzgerald LF et al: Paraganglioma of the thoracic spinal cord. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 98(2):183-5, 1996
                                                  31. Rees JH et al: Paragangliomas of the cauda equina. IJNR 2: 242-50, 1996
                                                  32. Roche PH et al: Cauda equina paraganglioma with subsequent intracranial and intraspinal metastases. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 138(4):475-9, 1996
                                                  33. Brodkey JA et al: Metastatic paraganglioma causing spinal cord compression. Spine. 20(3):367-72, 1995
                                                  34. Patel SR et al: A 15-year experience with chemotherapy of patients with paraganglioma. Cancer. 76(8):1476-80, 1995
                                                  35. Steel TR et al: Paraganglioma of the cauda equina with associated syringomyelia: case report. Surg Neurol. 42(6):489-93, 1994
                                                  36. Boukobza M et al: Paraganglioma of the cauda equina: magnetic resonance imaging. Neuroradiology. 35(6):459-60, 1993
                                                  37. Singh RV et al: Paraganglioma of the cauda equina: a case report and review of the literature. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 95(2):109-13, 1993
                                                  38. Massey V et al: Treatment of metastatic chemodectoma. Cancer. 69(3):790-2, 1992
                                                  39. Pande AK: Malignant pheochromocytoma. Int J Cardiol. 34(3):346-8, 1992
                                                  40. Cybulski GR et al: Spinal cord compression from a thoracic paraganglioma: case report. Neurosurgery. 28(2):306-9, 1991
                                                  41. Yoshida A et al: Paraganglioma of the cauda equina. A case report and review of the literature. Acta Pathol Jpn. 41(4):305-10, 1991
                                                  42. North CA et al: Multiple spinal metastases from paraganglioma. Cancer. 66(10):2224-8, 1990
                                                  43. Parnell AP et al: Extradural metastases from paraganglionomas, report of two cases. Clin Radiol. 39(1):65-8, 1988
                                                  44. Sato Y et al: Hippel-Lindau disease: MR imaging. Radiology. 166(1 Pt 1):241-6, 1988
                                                  Related Anatomy
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                                                  Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                                  References
                                                  Tables

                                                  Tables

                                                  KEY FACTS

                                                  • Terminology

                                                    • Imaging

                                                      • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                        • Pathology

                                                          • Clinical Issues

                                                            • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                              TERMINOLOGY

                                                              • Synonyms

                                                                • Glomus tumor
                                                                • Extraadrenal pheochromocytoma
                                                                • Chemodectoma
                                                              • Definitions

                                                                • Paraganglioma presenting as intradural extramedullary mass within cauda equina

                                                              IMAGING

                                                              • General Features

                                                                • CT Findings

                                                                  • MR Findings

                                                                    • Angiographic Findings

                                                                      • Nonvascular Interventions

                                                                        • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                                          • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                            DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                              PATHOLOGY

                                                                              • General Features

                                                                                • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                                  • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                                    • Microscopic Features

                                                                                      CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                                      • Presentation

                                                                                        • Demographics

                                                                                          • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                            • Treatment

                                                                                              DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                              • Consider

                                                                                                • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                                  Selected References

                                                                                                  1. Mishra T et al: Primary paraganglioma of the spine: A clinicopathological study of eight cases. J Craniovertebr Junction Spine. 5(1):20-4, 2014
                                                                                                  2. Simpson LN et al: Catecholamine-secreting paraganglioma of the thoracic spinal column: report of an unusual case and review of the literature. Neurosurgery. 70(4):E1049-52; discussion E1052, 2012
                                                                                                  3. Ardon H et al: Paraganglioma of the cauda equina region: A report of three cases. Surg Neurol Int. 2:96, 2011
                                                                                                  4. Makhdoomi R et al: Primary spinal paragangliomas: a review. Neurosurgery Quarterly. 19(3):196-9, 2009
                                                                                                  5. Rodesch G et al: Embolization of intradural vascular spinal cord tumors : report of five cases and review of the literature. Neuroradiology. 50(2):145-51, 2008
                                                                                                  6. Aydin AL et al: Chemodectoma presenting with dorsal vertebral metastasis. Neurosurgery Quarterly. 16(1):32-4, 2006
                                                                                                  7. Walsh JC et al: Paraganglioma of the cauda equina: a case report and literature review. Surgeon. 3(2):113-6, 2005
                                                                                                  8. Sankhla S et al: Cauda equina paraganglioma presenting with intracranial hypertension: case report and review of the literature. Neurol India. 52(2):243-4, 2004
                                                                                                  9. Jeffs GJ et al: Functioning paraganglioma of the thoracic spine: case report. Neurosurgery. 53(4):992-4; discussion 954-5, 2003
                                                                                                  10. Lazaro B et al: Malignant paraganglioma with vertebral metastasis: case report. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 61(2B):463-7, 2003
                                                                                                  11. Houten JK et al: Thoracic paraganglioma presenting with spinal cord compression and metastases. J Spinal Disord Tech. 15(4):319-23, 2002
                                                                                                  12. U-King-Im JM et al: Vertebral metastatic chemodectoma: imaging and therapeutic octreotide. Case report. J Neurosurg. 97(1 Suppl):106-9, 2002
                                                                                                  13. Kim SH et al: Oncocytoma of the spinal cord. Case report. J Neurosurg. 94(2 Suppl):310-2, 2001
                                                                                                  14. Lalloo ST et al: Clinics in diagnostic imaging (68). Intradural extramedullary spinal paraganglioma. Singapore Med J. 42(12):592-5, 2001
                                                                                                  15. Masuoka J et al: Germline SDHD mutation in paraganglioma of the spinal cord. Oncogene. 20(36):5084-6, 2001
                                                                                                  16. Shin JY et al: MR findings of the spinal paraganglioma : report of three cases. J Korean Med Sci. 16(4):522-6, 2001
                                                                                                  17. Hamilton MA et al: Metastatic paraganglioma causing spinal cord compression. Br J Radiol. 73(872):901-4, 2000
                                                                                                  18. Taira H et al: MR appearance of paraganglioma of the cauda equina. Case reports. Acta Radiol. 41(1):27-30, 2000
                                                                                                  19. Arbelaez A et al: Hemangioblastoma of the filum terminale: MR imaging. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 173(3):857-8, 1999
                                                                                                  20. Sundgren P et al: Paragangliomas of the spinal canal. Neuroradiology. 41(10):788-94, 1999
                                                                                                  21. Tibbs RE Jr et al: Hemangioblastoma of the filum terminale: case report. Neurosurgery. 44(1):221-3, 1999
                                                                                                  22. Ashkenazi E et al: Paraganglioma of the filum terminale: case report and literature review. J Spinal Disord. 11(6):540-2, 1998
                                                                                                  23. Herman M et al: Paraganglioma of the cauda equina: case report and review of the MRI features. Acta Univ Palacki Olomuc Fac Med. 141:27-30, 1998
                                                                                                  24. Paleologos TS et al: Paraganglioma of the cauda equina: a case presenting features of increased intracranial pressure. J Spinal Disord. 11(4):362-5, 1998
                                                                                                  25. Faro SH et al: Paraganglioma of the cauda equina with associated intramedullary cyst: MR findings. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 18(8):1588-90, 1997
                                                                                                  26. Hopster DJ et al: Widespread neuroendocrine malignancy within the central nervous system: a diagnostic conundrum. J Clin Pathol. 50(5):440-2, 1997
                                                                                                  27. Moran CA et al: Primary spinal paragangliomas: a clinicopathological and immunohistochemical study of 30 cases. Histopathology. 31(2):167-73, 1997
                                                                                                  28. Boncoeur-Martel MP et al: MRI of paraganglioma of the filum terminale. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 20(1):162-5, 1996
                                                                                                  29. Campbell L et al: Improved detection of disseminated pheochromocytoma using post therapy I-131 MIBG scanning. Clin Nucl Med. 21(12):960-3, 1996
                                                                                                  30. Fitzgerald LF et al: Paraganglioma of the thoracic spinal cord. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 98(2):183-5, 1996
                                                                                                  31. Rees JH et al: Paragangliomas of the cauda equina. IJNR 2: 242-50, 1996
                                                                                                  32. Roche PH et al: Cauda equina paraganglioma with subsequent intracranial and intraspinal metastases. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 138(4):475-9, 1996
                                                                                                  33. Brodkey JA et al: Metastatic paraganglioma causing spinal cord compression. Spine. 20(3):367-72, 1995
                                                                                                  34. Patel SR et al: A 15-year experience with chemotherapy of patients with paraganglioma. Cancer. 76(8):1476-80, 1995
                                                                                                  35. Steel TR et al: Paraganglioma of the cauda equina with associated syringomyelia: case report. Surg Neurol. 42(6):489-93, 1994
                                                                                                  36. Boukobza M et al: Paraganglioma of the cauda equina: magnetic resonance imaging. Neuroradiology. 35(6):459-60, 1993
                                                                                                  37. Singh RV et al: Paraganglioma of the cauda equina: a case report and review of the literature. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 95(2):109-13, 1993
                                                                                                  38. Massey V et al: Treatment of metastatic chemodectoma. Cancer. 69(3):790-2, 1992
                                                                                                  39. Pande AK: Malignant pheochromocytoma. Int J Cardiol. 34(3):346-8, 1992
                                                                                                  40. Cybulski GR et al: Spinal cord compression from a thoracic paraganglioma: case report. Neurosurgery. 28(2):306-9, 1991
                                                                                                  41. Yoshida A et al: Paraganglioma of the cauda equina. A case report and review of the literature. Acta Pathol Jpn. 41(4):305-10, 1991
                                                                                                  42. North CA et al: Multiple spinal metastases from paraganglioma. Cancer. 66(10):2224-8, 1990
                                                                                                  43. Parnell AP et al: Extradural metastases from paraganglionomas, report of two cases. Clin Radiol. 39(1):65-8, 1988
                                                                                                  44. Sato Y et al: Hippel-Lindau disease: MR imaging. Radiology. 166(1 Pt 1):241-6, 1988