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Parathyroid Adenoma
Paige Bennett, MD; T. Alex McKnight, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Pathology

    • Diagnostic Checklist

      TERMINOLOGY

      • Definitions

        • Parathyroid adenoma
          • Most common cause of primary hyperparathyroidism
            • Hypercalcemia due to increased production of parathyroid hormone (PTH) by parathyroid gland(s)
            • Enlarged parathyroid gland with normal cellular structure
            • Most are single adenomas, but 2 adenomas can occur
          • Usually posterior to thyroid gland
            • May be intrathyroidal or within thyroid capsule
            • Ectopic locations include carotid sheath, anterior mediastinum, and around heart
            • Pediatrics: Ectopic may be more common, particularly intrathymic

      IMAGING

      • Nuclear Medicine Findings

        • Imaging Recommendations

          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

            PATHOLOGY

            • General Features

              • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                • Microscopic Features

                  • Anatomic Location of Parathyroid Glands

                    CLINICAL ISSUES

                    • Presentation

                      • Demographics

                        • Treatment

                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                          • Image Interpretation Pearls

                            Selected References

                            1. Rampp RD et al: Single gland, ectopic location: Adenomas are common causes of primary hyperparathyroidism in children and adolescents. World J Surg. ePub, 2020
                            2. Bunch PM et al: Preoperative imaging techniques in primary hyperparathyroidism: A review. JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 144(10):929-37, 2018
                            3. Kuzminski SJ et al: Update in parathyroid imaging. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 26(1):151-66, 2018
                            4. Schenk WG 3rd et al: Surgeon-performed ultrasound for primary hyperparathyroidism. Am Surg. 79(7):681-5, 2013
                            Related Anatomy
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                            Related Differential Diagnoses
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                            References
                            Tables

                            Tables

                            KEY FACTS

                            • Pathology

                              • Diagnostic Checklist

                                TERMINOLOGY

                                • Definitions

                                  • Parathyroid adenoma
                                    • Most common cause of primary hyperparathyroidism
                                      • Hypercalcemia due to increased production of parathyroid hormone (PTH) by parathyroid gland(s)
                                      • Enlarged parathyroid gland with normal cellular structure
                                      • Most are single adenomas, but 2 adenomas can occur
                                    • Usually posterior to thyroid gland
                                      • May be intrathyroidal or within thyroid capsule
                                      • Ectopic locations include carotid sheath, anterior mediastinum, and around heart
                                      • Pediatrics: Ectopic may be more common, particularly intrathymic

                                IMAGING

                                • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                  • Imaging Recommendations

                                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                      PATHOLOGY

                                      • General Features

                                        • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                          • Microscopic Features

                                            • Anatomic Location of Parathyroid Glands

                                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                                              • Presentation

                                                • Demographics

                                                  • Treatment

                                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                    • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                      Selected References

                                                      1. Rampp RD et al: Single gland, ectopic location: Adenomas are common causes of primary hyperparathyroidism in children and adolescents. World J Surg. ePub, 2020
                                                      2. Bunch PM et al: Preoperative imaging techniques in primary hyperparathyroidism: A review. JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 144(10):929-37, 2018
                                                      3. Kuzminski SJ et al: Update in parathyroid imaging. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 26(1):151-66, 2018
                                                      4. Schenk WG 3rd et al: Surgeon-performed ultrasound for primary hyperparathyroidism. Am Surg. 79(7):681-5, 2013