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Parotid Lymphatic Malformation
Carmen C. Cho, MBBS, FRCR; H. Y. Yuen, MBChB, FRCR; Anil T. Ahuja, MD, FRCR
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KEY FACTS

  • Imaging

    • Top Differential Diagnoses

      • Diagnostic Checklist

        TERMINOLOGY

        • Abbreviations

          • Lymphatic malformation (LM)
        • Synonyms

          • Vascular malformation, lymphatic type
            • Spectrum of diseases
              • Venolymphatic malformation (VLM): Elements of venous vascular malformation (VVM) and LM in same mass
          • Lymphangioma and cystic hygroma (old terms)
        • Definitions

          • Abnormal collection of dilated lymphatic channels that are lined with endothelial cells
            • Almost all are congenital, resulting from abnormal development of lymphatic system
            • Very rarely can be secondary to trauma or surgery
        • Associated Syndromes

          • Turner syndrome is most common syndrome association
          • Less commonly seen in Down syndrome and fetal alcohol syndrome

        IMAGING

        • General Features

          • Ultrasonographic Findings

            • CT Findings

              • MR Findings

                • Imaging Recommendations

                  DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                    PATHOLOGY

                    • General Features

                      • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                        • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                          • Microscopic Features

                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                            • Presentation

                              • Demographics

                                • Natural History & Prognosis

                                  • Treatment

                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                    • Consider

                                      • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                        • Reporting Tips

                                          Selected References

                                          1. Kim DW: OK-432 sclerotherapy of lymphatic malformation in the head and neck: factors related to outcome. Pediatr Radiol. 44(7):857-62, 2014
                                          2. Leung M et al: Management of the low-flow head and neck vascular malformations in children: the sclerotherapy protocol. Eur J Pediatr Surg. 24(1):97-101, 2014
                                          3. Adams MT et al: Head and neck lymphatic malformation treatment: a systematic review. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 147(4):627-39, 2012
                                          4. Ibrahim M et al: Congenital cystic lesions of the head and neck. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 21(3):621-39, viii, 2011
                                          5. Wiegand S et al: Lymphatic malformations involving the parotid gland. Eur J Pediatr Surg. 21(4):242-5, 2011
                                          6. Zhou Q et al: Treatment guidelines of lymphatic malformations of the head and neck. Oral Oncol. 47(12):1105-9, 2011
                                          7. Wiegand S et al: Pathogenesis of lymphangiomas. Virchows Arch. 453(1):1-8, 2008
                                          Related Anatomy
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                                          Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                          References
                                          Tables

                                          Tables

                                          KEY FACTS

                                          • Imaging

                                            • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                              • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                TERMINOLOGY

                                                • Abbreviations

                                                  • Lymphatic malformation (LM)
                                                • Synonyms

                                                  • Vascular malformation, lymphatic type
                                                    • Spectrum of diseases
                                                      • Venolymphatic malformation (VLM): Elements of venous vascular malformation (VVM) and LM in same mass
                                                  • Lymphangioma and cystic hygroma (old terms)
                                                • Definitions

                                                  • Abnormal collection of dilated lymphatic channels that are lined with endothelial cells
                                                    • Almost all are congenital, resulting from abnormal development of lymphatic system
                                                    • Very rarely can be secondary to trauma or surgery
                                                • Associated Syndromes

                                                  • Turner syndrome is most common syndrome association
                                                  • Less commonly seen in Down syndrome and fetal alcohol syndrome

                                                IMAGING

                                                • General Features

                                                  • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                    • CT Findings

                                                      • MR Findings

                                                        • Imaging Recommendations

                                                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                            PATHOLOGY

                                                            • General Features

                                                              • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                  • Microscopic Features

                                                                    CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                    • Presentation

                                                                      • Demographics

                                                                        • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                          • Treatment

                                                                            DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                            • Consider

                                                                              • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                • Reporting Tips

                                                                                  Selected References

                                                                                  1. Kim DW: OK-432 sclerotherapy of lymphatic malformation in the head and neck: factors related to outcome. Pediatr Radiol. 44(7):857-62, 2014
                                                                                  2. Leung M et al: Management of the low-flow head and neck vascular malformations in children: the sclerotherapy protocol. Eur J Pediatr Surg. 24(1):97-101, 2014
                                                                                  3. Adams MT et al: Head and neck lymphatic malformation treatment: a systematic review. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 147(4):627-39, 2012
                                                                                  4. Ibrahim M et al: Congenital cystic lesions of the head and neck. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 21(3):621-39, viii, 2011
                                                                                  5. Wiegand S et al: Lymphatic malformations involving the parotid gland. Eur J Pediatr Surg. 21(4):242-5, 2011
                                                                                  6. Zhou Q et al: Treatment guidelines of lymphatic malformations of the head and neck. Oral Oncol. 47(12):1105-9, 2011
                                                                                  7. Wiegand S et al: Pathogenesis of lymphangiomas. Virchows Arch. 453(1):1-8, 2008