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Pediatric Acute and Postoperative Pain
Lizbeeth Lopez, MD; Chang Amber Liu, MD, MSc, FAAP
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KEY FACTS

  • Common Regional Blocks/Catheters Utilized in Pediatric Population

    • Clinical Implications

      TERMINOLOGY

      • Abbreviations

        • Pediatric Regional Anesthesia Network (PRAN)
        • Supraclavicular nerve block (SCNB)
        • Rectus sheath plane block (RSPB)
        • Rectus abdominis (RAM)
        • Transversus abdominis plane (TAP)
        • Dorsal penile nerve block (DPNB)
        • Femoral nerve block (FNB)
        • Adductor canal nerve block (ACBN)
        • Visual analog scale (VAS)
        • Lateral femoral cutaneous nerve (LFCN)
        • Postanesthesia recovery unit (PACU)
        • Local anesthetic toxicity (LAST)

      CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS

      • Clinical Importance

        • Pediatric Regional Anesthesia Network Data

          • Postoperative Pain Management

            Selected References

            1. Abdullayev R et al: Caudal anesthesia for pediatric subumbilical surgery, less load on the postoperative recovery unit. cureus. 11(3):e4348, 2019
            2. Kuroki S et al: Intraoperative single-dose intravenous acetaminophen for postoperative analgesia after skin laser irradiation surgery in paediatric patients: a small prospective study. Turk J Anaesthesiol Reanim. 47(3):192-8, 2019
            3. Okonkwo I et al: Continuous caudal epidural analgesia and early feeding in delayed bladder exstrophy repair: a nine-year experience. J Pediatr Urol. 15(1):76.e1-8, 2019
            4. Ahiskalioglu A et al: Ultrasound-guided versus conventional injection for caudal block in children: a prospective randomized clinical study. J Clin Anesth. 44:91-6, 2018
            5. Antony S et al: Pediatric ambulatory continuous peripheral nerve blocks. Anesthesiol Clin. 36(3):455-65, 2018
            6. Daoud AK et al: Combined femoral-sciatic nerve block is superior to continuous femoral nerve block during anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in the pediatric population. Iowa Orthop J. 38:101-6, 2018
            7. Simić D et al: The safety and efficacy of the continuous peripheral nerve block in postoperative analgesia of pediatric patients. Front Med (Lausanne). 5:57, 2018
            8. Wang J et al: Dorsal penile nerve block versus eutectic mixture of local anesthetics cream for pain relief in infants during circumcision: a meta-analysis. PLoS One. 13(9):e0203439, 2018
            9. Committee on Fetus and Newborn and Section on Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine: prevention and management of procedural pain in the neonate: an update. Pediatrics. 137(2):e20154271, 2016
            10. Franklin AD et al: Fluoroscopically guided tunneled trans-caudal epidural catheter technique for opioid-free neonatal epidural analgesia. J Anesth. 30(3):493-7, 2016
            11. Hamill JK et al: Rectus sheath and transversus abdominis plane blocks in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials. Paediatr Anaesth. 26(4):363-71, 2016
            12. Chen JY et al: Single shot adductor canal block for postoperative analgesia of pediatric patellar dislocation surgery: a case-series report. Medicine (Baltimore). 94(48):e2217, 2015
            13. Walker BJ et al: Peripheral nerve catheters in children: an analysis of safety and practice patterns from the pediatric regional anesthesia network (PRAN). Br J Anaesth. 115(3):457-62, 2015
            14. Gupta A et al: Spinal anesthesia in children: a review. J Anaesthesiol Clin Pharmacol. 30(1):10-8, 2014
            15. Polaner DM et al: Pediatric Regional Anesthesia Network (PRAN): a multi-institutional study of the use and incidence of complications of pediatric regional anesthesia. Anesth Analg. 115(6):1353-64, 2012
            16. Amiri HR et al: Upper extremity surgery in younger children under ultrasound-guided supraclavicular brachial plexus block: a case series. J Child Orthop. 4(4):315-9, 2010
            17. Mesnil M et al: A new approach for peri-operative analgesia of cleft palate repair in infants: the bilateral suprazygomatic maxillary nerve block. Paediatr Anaesth. 20(4):343-9, 2010
            18. Yang CW et al: Ultrasound-guided supraclavicular brachial plexus block in pediatric patients -a report of four cases-. Korean J Anesthesiol. 59 Suppl:S90-4, 2010
            19. Farooq M et al: A case of liver trauma with a blunt regional anesthesia needle while performing transversus abdominis plane block. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 33(3):274-5, 2008
            20. Tsui BC et al: Caudal analgesia and anesthesia techniques in children. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol. 18(3):283-8, 2005
            Related Anatomy
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            References
            Tables

            Tables

            KEY FACTS

            • Common Regional Blocks/Catheters Utilized in Pediatric Population

              • Clinical Implications

                TERMINOLOGY

                • Abbreviations

                  • Pediatric Regional Anesthesia Network (PRAN)
                  • Supraclavicular nerve block (SCNB)
                  • Rectus sheath plane block (RSPB)
                  • Rectus abdominis (RAM)
                  • Transversus abdominis plane (TAP)
                  • Dorsal penile nerve block (DPNB)
                  • Femoral nerve block (FNB)
                  • Adductor canal nerve block (ACBN)
                  • Visual analog scale (VAS)
                  • Lateral femoral cutaneous nerve (LFCN)
                  • Postanesthesia recovery unit (PACU)
                  • Local anesthetic toxicity (LAST)

                CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS

                • Clinical Importance

                  • Pediatric Regional Anesthesia Network Data

                    • Postoperative Pain Management

                      Selected References

                      1. Abdullayev R et al: Caudal anesthesia for pediatric subumbilical surgery, less load on the postoperative recovery unit. cureus. 11(3):e4348, 2019
                      2. Kuroki S et al: Intraoperative single-dose intravenous acetaminophen for postoperative analgesia after skin laser irradiation surgery in paediatric patients: a small prospective study. Turk J Anaesthesiol Reanim. 47(3):192-8, 2019
                      3. Okonkwo I et al: Continuous caudal epidural analgesia and early feeding in delayed bladder exstrophy repair: a nine-year experience. J Pediatr Urol. 15(1):76.e1-8, 2019
                      4. Ahiskalioglu A et al: Ultrasound-guided versus conventional injection for caudal block in children: a prospective randomized clinical study. J Clin Anesth. 44:91-6, 2018
                      5. Antony S et al: Pediatric ambulatory continuous peripheral nerve blocks. Anesthesiol Clin. 36(3):455-65, 2018
                      6. Daoud AK et al: Combined femoral-sciatic nerve block is superior to continuous femoral nerve block during anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in the pediatric population. Iowa Orthop J. 38:101-6, 2018
                      7. Simić D et al: The safety and efficacy of the continuous peripheral nerve block in postoperative analgesia of pediatric patients. Front Med (Lausanne). 5:57, 2018
                      8. Wang J et al: Dorsal penile nerve block versus eutectic mixture of local anesthetics cream for pain relief in infants during circumcision: a meta-analysis. PLoS One. 13(9):e0203439, 2018
                      9. Committee on Fetus and Newborn and Section on Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine: prevention and management of procedural pain in the neonate: an update. Pediatrics. 137(2):e20154271, 2016
                      10. Franklin AD et al: Fluoroscopically guided tunneled trans-caudal epidural catheter technique for opioid-free neonatal epidural analgesia. J Anesth. 30(3):493-7, 2016
                      11. Hamill JK et al: Rectus sheath and transversus abdominis plane blocks in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials. Paediatr Anaesth. 26(4):363-71, 2016
                      12. Chen JY et al: Single shot adductor canal block for postoperative analgesia of pediatric patellar dislocation surgery: a case-series report. Medicine (Baltimore). 94(48):e2217, 2015
                      13. Walker BJ et al: Peripheral nerve catheters in children: an analysis of safety and practice patterns from the pediatric regional anesthesia network (PRAN). Br J Anaesth. 115(3):457-62, 2015
                      14. Gupta A et al: Spinal anesthesia in children: a review. J Anaesthesiol Clin Pharmacol. 30(1):10-8, 2014
                      15. Polaner DM et al: Pediatric Regional Anesthesia Network (PRAN): a multi-institutional study of the use and incidence of complications of pediatric regional anesthesia. Anesth Analg. 115(6):1353-64, 2012
                      16. Amiri HR et al: Upper extremity surgery in younger children under ultrasound-guided supraclavicular brachial plexus block: a case series. J Child Orthop. 4(4):315-9, 2010
                      17. Mesnil M et al: A new approach for peri-operative analgesia of cleft palate repair in infants: the bilateral suprazygomatic maxillary nerve block. Paediatr Anaesth. 20(4):343-9, 2010
                      18. Yang CW et al: Ultrasound-guided supraclavicular brachial plexus block in pediatric patients -a report of four cases-. Korean J Anesthesiol. 59 Suppl:S90-4, 2010
                      19. Farooq M et al: A case of liver trauma with a blunt regional anesthesia needle while performing transversus abdominis plane block. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 33(3):274-5, 2008
                      20. Tsui BC et al: Caudal analgesia and anesthesia techniques in children. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol. 18(3):283-8, 2005