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Pediatric Applications at CEUS: Contrast-Enhanced Voiding Urosonography (ceVUS)
Aikaterini Ntoulia, MD, PhD; Kassa Darge, MD, PhD; Susan J. Back, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Imaging

    • Interpretation

      TERMINOLOGY

      • Definitions

        • Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR): Retrograde flow of urine from bladder through ureters up to kidneys

      Vesicoureteral Reflux

      • General Features

        ceVUS TECHNIQUE

        • Procedure Steps

          IMAGING

          • US Findings

            • VCUG Findings

              • RNC Findings

                • ceVUS Findings

                  ceVUS Interpretation

                  • Best Diagnostic Clue

                    • Scoring

                      • Differential Diagnosis

                        DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                        • Consider

                          • Image Interpretation Pearls

                            • ceVUS Reporting

                              Selected References

                              1. Darge K et al: Invited commentary: Prime time for contrast-enhanced voiding urosonography after approval of a US contrast agent for children. Radiographics. 37(6):1869-1871, 2017
                              2. Mattoo TK et al: The RIVUR trial: A factual interpretation of our data. Pediatr Nephrol. 30(5):707-12, 2015
                              3. Papadopoulou F et al: Contrast-enhanced voiding urosonography with intravesical administration of a second-generation ultrasound contrast agent for diagnosis of vesicoureteral reflux: prospective evaluation of contrast safety in 1,010 children. Pediatr Radiol. 44(6):719-28, 2014
                              4. Carpenter MA et al: The RIVUR trial: profile and baseline clinical associations of children with vesicoureteral reflux. Pediatrics. 132(1):e34-45, 2013
                              5. Darge K: Voiding urosonography with US contrast agents for the diagnosis of vesicoureteric reflux in children. II. Comparison with radiological examinations. Pediatr Radiol. 38(1):54-63; quiz 126-7, 2008
                              6. Darge K: Voiding urosonography with ultrasound contrast agents for the diagnosis of vesicoureteric reflux in children. I. Procedure. Pediatr Radiol. 38(1):40-53, 2008
                              7. Fettich J et al: Guidelines for direct radionuclide cystography in children. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 30(5):B39-44, 2003
                              8. Darge K et al: Vesicoureteral reflux grading in contrast-enhanced voiding urosonography. Eur J Radiol. 43(2):122-8, 2002
                              9. Fernbach SK et al: Pediatric voiding cystourethrography: a pictorial guide. Radiographics. 20(1):155-68; discussion 168-71, 2000
                              10. Lebowitz RL et al: International system of radiographic grading of vesicoureteric reflux. International Reflux Study in Children. Pediatr Radiol. 15(2):105-9, 1985
                              Related Anatomy
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                              Related Differential Diagnoses
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                              References
                              Tables

                              Tables

                              KEY FACTS

                              • Imaging

                                • Interpretation

                                  TERMINOLOGY

                                  • Definitions

                                    • Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR): Retrograde flow of urine from bladder through ureters up to kidneys

                                  Vesicoureteral Reflux

                                  • General Features

                                    ceVUS TECHNIQUE

                                    • Procedure Steps

                                      IMAGING

                                      • US Findings

                                        • VCUG Findings

                                          • RNC Findings

                                            • ceVUS Findings

                                              ceVUS Interpretation

                                              • Best Diagnostic Clue

                                                • Scoring

                                                  • Differential Diagnosis

                                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                    • Consider

                                                      • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                        • ceVUS Reporting

                                                          Selected References

                                                          1. Darge K et al: Invited commentary: Prime time for contrast-enhanced voiding urosonography after approval of a US contrast agent for children. Radiographics. 37(6):1869-1871, 2017
                                                          2. Mattoo TK et al: The RIVUR trial: A factual interpretation of our data. Pediatr Nephrol. 30(5):707-12, 2015
                                                          3. Papadopoulou F et al: Contrast-enhanced voiding urosonography with intravesical administration of a second-generation ultrasound contrast agent for diagnosis of vesicoureteral reflux: prospective evaluation of contrast safety in 1,010 children. Pediatr Radiol. 44(6):719-28, 2014
                                                          4. Carpenter MA et al: The RIVUR trial: profile and baseline clinical associations of children with vesicoureteral reflux. Pediatrics. 132(1):e34-45, 2013
                                                          5. Darge K: Voiding urosonography with US contrast agents for the diagnosis of vesicoureteric reflux in children. II. Comparison with radiological examinations. Pediatr Radiol. 38(1):54-63; quiz 126-7, 2008
                                                          6. Darge K: Voiding urosonography with ultrasound contrast agents for the diagnosis of vesicoureteric reflux in children. I. Procedure. Pediatr Radiol. 38(1):40-53, 2008
                                                          7. Fettich J et al: Guidelines for direct radionuclide cystography in children. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 30(5):B39-44, 2003
                                                          8. Darge K et al: Vesicoureteral reflux grading in contrast-enhanced voiding urosonography. Eur J Radiol. 43(2):122-8, 2002
                                                          9. Fernbach SK et al: Pediatric voiding cystourethrography: a pictorial guide. Radiographics. 20(1):155-68; discussion 168-71, 2000
                                                          10. Lebowitz RL et al: International system of radiographic grading of vesicoureteric reflux. International Reflux Study in Children. Pediatr Radiol. 15(2):105-9, 1985