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Pelvic Floor Imaging
Rania Farouk El Sayed, MD, PhD
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Indications

  • Preoperative and Treatment Planning

    • Postoperative Evaluation

      Before MR

      • Clinical Evaluation

        Imaging Technique

        • Patient Preparation

          • Patient Position

            • Sequences

              • Phases of Dynamic MR Protocols

                • Precautions to Ensure Proper Dynamic MR Techniques

                  Analysis of Dynamic Images in Sagittal Plane

                  • General Principles

                    • Pelvic Organ Prolapse (POP)

                      • Stress Urinary Incontinence (SUI)

                        • Supportive Measurements

                          MR Defecography

                          • Definitions

                            • Indication

                              • Patient Preparation

                                • Imaging Technique

                                  • Precautions to Ensure Proper Dynamic MR Techniques

                                    • Reporting MR Defecography

                                      Selected References

                                      1. El Sayed RF: Female pelvic floor dysfunction. In Morcos SK et al: Urogenital Imaging: A Problem-Oriented Approach. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell. 399–413, 2009
                                      2. El Sayed RF et al: Pelvic floor dysfunction: assessment with combined analysis of static and dynamic MR imaging findings. Radiology. 248(2):518-30, 2008
                                      3. Lienemann A et al: Assessment of pelvic organ descent by use of functional cine-MRI: which reference line should be used? Neurourol Urodyn. 23(1):33-7, 2004
                                      4. Kelvin FM et al: Dynamic cystoproctography: Fluoroscopic and MR techniques for evaluating pelvic organ prolapse. In Bartram CI et al: Imaging Pelvic Floor Disorders. New York: Springer. 51-68, 2003
                                      5. Lienemann A et al: Functional imaging of the pelvic floor. Eur J Radiol. 47(2):117-22, 2003
                                      6. Fielding JR: Practical MR imaging of female pelvic floor weakness. Radiographics. 22(2):295-304, 2002
                                      7. Singh K et al: Magnetic resonance imaging of normal levator ani anatomy and function. Obstet Gynecol. 99(3):433-8, 2002
                                      8. Hoyte L et al: Two- and 3-dimensional MRI comparison of levator ani structure, volume, and integrity in women with stress incontinence and prolapse. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 185(1):11-9, 2001
                                      9. Kelvin FM et al: Female pelvic organ prolapse: a comparison of triphasic dynamic MR imaging and triphasic fluoroscopic cystocolpoproctography. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 174(1):81-8, 2000
                                      10. Lienemann A et al: [Functional MRI of the pelvic floor. The methods and reference values.] Radiologe. 40(5):458-64, 2000
                                      11. Pannu HK et al: Dynamic MR imaging of pelvic organ prolapse: spectrum of abnormalities. Radiographics. 20(6):1567-82, 2000
                                      12. Comiter CV et al: Grading pelvic prolapse and pelvic floor relaxation using dynamic magnetic resonance imaging. Urology. 54(3):454-7, 1999
                                      13. Kelvin FM et al: Female pelvic organ prolapse: diagnostic contribution of dynamic cystoproctography and comparison with physical examination. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 173(1):31-7, 1999
                                      14. Healy JC et al: Magnetic resonance imaging of the pelvic floor in patients with obstructed defaecation. Br J Surg. 84(11):1555-8, 1997
                                      15. Kelvin FM et al: Dynamic cystoproctography of female pelvic floor defects and their interrelationships. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 169(3):769-74, 1997
                                      16. Lienemann A et al: Dynamic MR colpocystorectography assessing pelvic-floor descent. Eur Radiol. 7(8):1309-17, 1997
                                      17. Kelvin FM et al: Evacuation proctography (defecography): an aid to the investigation of pelvic floor disorders. Obstet Gynecol. 83(2):307-14, 1994
                                      18. Ozasa H et al: Study of uterine prolapse by magnetic resonance imaging: topographical changes involving the levator ani muscle and the vagina. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 34(1):43-8, 1992
                                      19. Yang A et al: Pelvic floor descent in women: dynamic evaluation with fast MR imaging and cinematic display. Radiology. 179(1):25-33, 1991
                                      Related Anatomy
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                                      Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                      References
                                      Tables

                                      Tables

                                      Indications

                                      • Preoperative and Treatment Planning

                                        • Postoperative Evaluation

                                          Before MR

                                          • Clinical Evaluation

                                            Imaging Technique

                                            • Patient Preparation

                                              • Patient Position

                                                • Sequences

                                                  • Phases of Dynamic MR Protocols

                                                    • Precautions to Ensure Proper Dynamic MR Techniques

                                                      Analysis of Dynamic Images in Sagittal Plane

                                                      • General Principles

                                                        • Pelvic Organ Prolapse (POP)

                                                          • Stress Urinary Incontinence (SUI)

                                                            • Supportive Measurements

                                                              MR Defecography

                                                              • Definitions

                                                                • Indication

                                                                  • Patient Preparation

                                                                    • Imaging Technique

                                                                      • Precautions to Ensure Proper Dynamic MR Techniques

                                                                        • Reporting MR Defecography

                                                                          Selected References

                                                                          1. El Sayed RF: Female pelvic floor dysfunction. In Morcos SK et al: Urogenital Imaging: A Problem-Oriented Approach. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell. 399–413, 2009
                                                                          2. El Sayed RF et al: Pelvic floor dysfunction: assessment with combined analysis of static and dynamic MR imaging findings. Radiology. 248(2):518-30, 2008
                                                                          3. Lienemann A et al: Assessment of pelvic organ descent by use of functional cine-MRI: which reference line should be used? Neurourol Urodyn. 23(1):33-7, 2004
                                                                          4. Kelvin FM et al: Dynamic cystoproctography: Fluoroscopic and MR techniques for evaluating pelvic organ prolapse. In Bartram CI et al: Imaging Pelvic Floor Disorders. New York: Springer. 51-68, 2003
                                                                          5. Lienemann A et al: Functional imaging of the pelvic floor. Eur J Radiol. 47(2):117-22, 2003
                                                                          6. Fielding JR: Practical MR imaging of female pelvic floor weakness. Radiographics. 22(2):295-304, 2002
                                                                          7. Singh K et al: Magnetic resonance imaging of normal levator ani anatomy and function. Obstet Gynecol. 99(3):433-8, 2002
                                                                          8. Hoyte L et al: Two- and 3-dimensional MRI comparison of levator ani structure, volume, and integrity in women with stress incontinence and prolapse. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 185(1):11-9, 2001
                                                                          9. Kelvin FM et al: Female pelvic organ prolapse: a comparison of triphasic dynamic MR imaging and triphasic fluoroscopic cystocolpoproctography. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 174(1):81-8, 2000
                                                                          10. Lienemann A et al: [Functional MRI of the pelvic floor. The methods and reference values.] Radiologe. 40(5):458-64, 2000
                                                                          11. Pannu HK et al: Dynamic MR imaging of pelvic organ prolapse: spectrum of abnormalities. Radiographics. 20(6):1567-82, 2000
                                                                          12. Comiter CV et al: Grading pelvic prolapse and pelvic floor relaxation using dynamic magnetic resonance imaging. Urology. 54(3):454-7, 1999
                                                                          13. Kelvin FM et al: Female pelvic organ prolapse: diagnostic contribution of dynamic cystoproctography and comparison with physical examination. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 173(1):31-7, 1999
                                                                          14. Healy JC et al: Magnetic resonance imaging of the pelvic floor in patients with obstructed defaecation. Br J Surg. 84(11):1555-8, 1997
                                                                          15. Kelvin FM et al: Dynamic cystoproctography of female pelvic floor defects and their interrelationships. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 169(3):769-74, 1997
                                                                          16. Lienemann A et al: Dynamic MR colpocystorectography assessing pelvic-floor descent. Eur Radiol. 7(8):1309-17, 1997
                                                                          17. Kelvin FM et al: Evacuation proctography (defecography): an aid to the investigation of pelvic floor disorders. Obstet Gynecol. 83(2):307-14, 1994
                                                                          18. Ozasa H et al: Study of uterine prolapse by magnetic resonance imaging: topographical changes involving the levator ani muscle and the vagina. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 34(1):43-8, 1992
                                                                          19. Yang A et al: Pelvic floor descent in women: dynamic evaluation with fast MR imaging and cinematic display. Radiology. 179(1):25-33, 1991