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Pelvic Inflammatory Disease, General Considerations
Paula J. Woodward, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Abbreviations

              • Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
            • Definitions

              • Infection of upper female genital tract including endometrium, fallopian tubes, ovaries, and peritoneal cavity
                • Includes endometritis, salpingitis, pyosalpinx, oophoritis, tubo-ovarian abscesses (TOA), pelvic abscesses

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • Ultrasonographic Findings

                • CT Findings

                  • MR Findings

                    • Imaging Recommendations

                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        PATHOLOGY

                        • General Features

                          • Microscopic Features

                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                            • Presentation

                              • Demographics

                                • Natural History & Prognosis

                                  • Treatment

                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                    • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                      Selected References

                                      1. Crittle KN et al: Diagnosis and treatment of pelvic inflammatory disease: a quality assessment study. Obstet Gynecol. 123 Suppl 1:26S, 2014
                                      2. Lee MH et al: CT findings of acute pelvic inflammatory disease. Abdom Imaging. Epub ahead of print, 2014
                                      3. Romosan G et al: The sensitivity and specificity of transvaginal ultrasound with regard to acute pelvic inflammatory disease: a review of the literature. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 289(4):705-14, 2014
                                      4. Zhao WH et al: Pelvic inflammatory disease: a retrospective clinical analysis of 1,922 cases in North China. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 77(3):169-75, 2014
                                      5. Greenstein Y et al: Tuboovarian abscess. Factors associated with operative intervention after failed antibiotic therapy. J Reprod Med. 58(3-4):101-6, 2013
                                      6. Mitchell C et al: Pelvic inflammatory disease: current concepts in pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 27(4):793-809, 2013
                                      7. Nakayama K et al: Surgical treatment outcomes of serious chronic tubo-ovarian abscess: a single-center series of 20 cases. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol. 40(3):377-80, 2013
                                      8. Chappell CA et al: Pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of severe pelvic inflammatory disease and tuboovarian abscess. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 55(4):893-903, 2012
                                      9. Lewiss RE et al: Sonographic cervical motion tenderness: A sign found in a patient with pelvic inflammatory disease. Crit Ultrasound J. 4(1):20, 2012
                                      10. Thomassin-Naggara I et al: Gynecological pelvic infection: what is the role of imaging? Diagn Interv Imaging. 93(6):491-9, 2012
                                      11. Cicchiello LA et al: Ultrasound evaluation of gynecologic causes of pelvic pain. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am. 38(1):85-114, viii, 2011
                                      12. Levenson RB et al: Image-guided drainage of tuboovarian abscesses of gastrointestinal or genitourinary origin: a retrospective analysis. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 22(5):678-86, 2011
                                      13. Rezvani M et al: Fallopian tube disease in the nonpregnant patient. Radiographics. 31(2):527-48, 2011
                                      14. Banikarim C et al: Pelvic inflammatory disease in adolescents. Semin Pediatr Infect Dis. 16(3):175-80, 2005
                                      15. Barrett S et al: A review on pelvic inflammatory disease. Int J STD AIDS. 16(11):715-20; quiz 721, 2005
                                      16. Banikarim C et al: Pelvic inflammatory disease in adolescents. Adolesc Med Clin. 15(2):273-85, viii, 2004
                                      17. Horrow MM: Ultrasound of pelvic inflammatory disease. Ultrasound Q. 20(4):171-9, 2004
                                      18. Krivak TC et al: Tubo-ovarian abscess: diagnosis, medical and surgical management. Compr Ther. 30(2):93-100, 2004
                                      Related Anatomy
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                                      Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                      References
                                      Tables

                                      Tables

                                      KEY FACTS

                                      • Terminology

                                        • Imaging

                                          • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                            • Pathology

                                              • Clinical Issues

                                                TERMINOLOGY

                                                • Abbreviations

                                                  • Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
                                                • Definitions

                                                  • Infection of upper female genital tract including endometrium, fallopian tubes, ovaries, and peritoneal cavity
                                                    • Includes endometritis, salpingitis, pyosalpinx, oophoritis, tubo-ovarian abscesses (TOA), pelvic abscesses

                                                IMAGING

                                                • General Features

                                                  • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                    • CT Findings

                                                      • MR Findings

                                                        • Imaging Recommendations

                                                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                            PATHOLOGY

                                                            • General Features

                                                              • Microscopic Features

                                                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                • Presentation

                                                                  • Demographics

                                                                    • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                      • Treatment

                                                                        DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                          Selected References

                                                                          1. Crittle KN et al: Diagnosis and treatment of pelvic inflammatory disease: a quality assessment study. Obstet Gynecol. 123 Suppl 1:26S, 2014
                                                                          2. Lee MH et al: CT findings of acute pelvic inflammatory disease. Abdom Imaging. Epub ahead of print, 2014
                                                                          3. Romosan G et al: The sensitivity and specificity of transvaginal ultrasound with regard to acute pelvic inflammatory disease: a review of the literature. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 289(4):705-14, 2014
                                                                          4. Zhao WH et al: Pelvic inflammatory disease: a retrospective clinical analysis of 1,922 cases in North China. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 77(3):169-75, 2014
                                                                          5. Greenstein Y et al: Tuboovarian abscess. Factors associated with operative intervention after failed antibiotic therapy. J Reprod Med. 58(3-4):101-6, 2013
                                                                          6. Mitchell C et al: Pelvic inflammatory disease: current concepts in pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 27(4):793-809, 2013
                                                                          7. Nakayama K et al: Surgical treatment outcomes of serious chronic tubo-ovarian abscess: a single-center series of 20 cases. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol. 40(3):377-80, 2013
                                                                          8. Chappell CA et al: Pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of severe pelvic inflammatory disease and tuboovarian abscess. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 55(4):893-903, 2012
                                                                          9. Lewiss RE et al: Sonographic cervical motion tenderness: A sign found in a patient with pelvic inflammatory disease. Crit Ultrasound J. 4(1):20, 2012
                                                                          10. Thomassin-Naggara I et al: Gynecological pelvic infection: what is the role of imaging? Diagn Interv Imaging. 93(6):491-9, 2012
                                                                          11. Cicchiello LA et al: Ultrasound evaluation of gynecologic causes of pelvic pain. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am. 38(1):85-114, viii, 2011
                                                                          12. Levenson RB et al: Image-guided drainage of tuboovarian abscesses of gastrointestinal or genitourinary origin: a retrospective analysis. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 22(5):678-86, 2011
                                                                          13. Rezvani M et al: Fallopian tube disease in the nonpregnant patient. Radiographics. 31(2):527-48, 2011
                                                                          14. Banikarim C et al: Pelvic inflammatory disease in adolescents. Semin Pediatr Infect Dis. 16(3):175-80, 2005
                                                                          15. Barrett S et al: A review on pelvic inflammatory disease. Int J STD AIDS. 16(11):715-20; quiz 721, 2005
                                                                          16. Banikarim C et al: Pelvic inflammatory disease in adolescents. Adolesc Med Clin. 15(2):273-85, viii, 2004
                                                                          17. Horrow MM: Ultrasound of pelvic inflammatory disease. Ultrasound Q. 20(4):171-9, 2004
                                                                          18. Krivak TC et al: Tubo-ovarian abscess: diagnosis, medical and surgical management. Compr Ther. 30(2):93-100, 2004