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Pericardial Effusion
Cristina Fuss, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Clinical Issues

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Definitions

            • Fluid in pericardial space
            • Cardiopericardial silhouette: Combined pericardial and cardiac silhouette on radiography

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • Radiographic Findings

              • CT Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Ultrasonographic Findings

                    • Imaging Recommendations

                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        PATHOLOGY

                        • General Features

                          • Pathophysiology

                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                            • Presentation

                              • Treatment

                                DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                  Selected References

                                  1. Leiner T et al: SCMR position paper (2020) on clinical indications for cardiovascular magnetic resonance. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson. 22(1):76, 2020
                                  2. √únal E et al: The imaging appearances of various pericardial disorders. Insights Imaging. 10(1):42, 2019
                                  3. Kar SK et al: Current concepts of diagnosis and management of pericardial cysts. Indian Heart J. 69(3):364-70, 2017
                                  4. Czum JM et al: Evaluation of the pericardium with CT and MR. ISRN Cardiol. 2014:174908, 2014
                                  5. Walker CM et al: Cardiac complications of oncologic therapy. Radiographics. 33(6):1801-15, 2013
                                  6. Rajiah p: Cardiac MRI: part 2, pericardial diseases. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 197(4):W621-34, 2011
                                  7. O'Leary SM et al: Imaging the pericardium: appearances on ECG-gated 64-detector row cardiac computed tomography. Br J Radiol. 83(987):194-205, 2010
                                  8. Rajiah P et al: Computed tomography of the pericardium and pericardial disease. J Cardiovasc Comput Tomogr. 4(1):3-18, 2010
                                  9. Bogaert J et al: Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in pericardial diseases. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson. 11:14, 2009
                                  10. Palmer SL et al: CT-guided tube pericardiostomy: a safe and effective technique in the management of postsurgical pericardial effusion. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 193(4):W314-20, 2009
                                  11. Parker MS et al: Radiologic signs in thoracic imaging: case-based review and self-assessment module. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2009 Mar;192(3 Suppl):S34-48. 
                                  12. Little WC et al: Pericardial disease. Circulation. 2006 Mar 28;113(12):1622-32. Review. Erratum in: Circulation. 115(15):e406, 2007
                                  13. Restrepo CS et al: Imaging findings in cardiac tamponade with emphasis on CT. Radiographics. 27(6):1595-610, 2007
                                  14. Wang ZJ et al: CT and MR imaging of pericardial disease. Radiographics. 23 Spec No:S167-80, 2003
                                  Related Anatomy
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                                  Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                  References
                                  Tables

                                  Tables

                                  KEY FACTS

                                  • Terminology

                                    • Imaging

                                      • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                        • Clinical Issues

                                          TERMINOLOGY

                                          • Definitions

                                            • Fluid in pericardial space
                                            • Cardiopericardial silhouette: Combined pericardial and cardiac silhouette on radiography

                                          IMAGING

                                          • General Features

                                            • Radiographic Findings

                                              • CT Findings

                                                • MR Findings

                                                  • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                    • Imaging Recommendations

                                                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                        PATHOLOGY

                                                        • General Features

                                                          • Pathophysiology

                                                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                            • Presentation

                                                              • Treatment

                                                                DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                  Selected References

                                                                  1. Leiner T et al: SCMR position paper (2020) on clinical indications for cardiovascular magnetic resonance. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson. 22(1):76, 2020
                                                                  2. √únal E et al: The imaging appearances of various pericardial disorders. Insights Imaging. 10(1):42, 2019
                                                                  3. Kar SK et al: Current concepts of diagnosis and management of pericardial cysts. Indian Heart J. 69(3):364-70, 2017
                                                                  4. Czum JM et al: Evaluation of the pericardium with CT and MR. ISRN Cardiol. 2014:174908, 2014
                                                                  5. Walker CM et al: Cardiac complications of oncologic therapy. Radiographics. 33(6):1801-15, 2013
                                                                  6. Rajiah p: Cardiac MRI: part 2, pericardial diseases. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 197(4):W621-34, 2011
                                                                  7. O'Leary SM et al: Imaging the pericardium: appearances on ECG-gated 64-detector row cardiac computed tomography. Br J Radiol. 83(987):194-205, 2010
                                                                  8. Rajiah P et al: Computed tomography of the pericardium and pericardial disease. J Cardiovasc Comput Tomogr. 4(1):3-18, 2010
                                                                  9. Bogaert J et al: Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in pericardial diseases. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson. 11:14, 2009
                                                                  10. Palmer SL et al: CT-guided tube pericardiostomy: a safe and effective technique in the management of postsurgical pericardial effusion. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 193(4):W314-20, 2009
                                                                  11. Parker MS et al: Radiologic signs in thoracic imaging: case-based review and self-assessment module. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2009 Mar;192(3 Suppl):S34-48. 
                                                                  12. Little WC et al: Pericardial disease. Circulation. 2006 Mar 28;113(12):1622-32. Review. Erratum in: Circulation. 115(15):e406, 2007
                                                                  13. Restrepo CS et al: Imaging findings in cardiac tamponade with emphasis on CT. Radiographics. 27(6):1595-610, 2007
                                                                  14. Wang ZJ et al: CT and MR imaging of pericardial disease. Radiographics. 23 Spec No:S167-80, 2003