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Pericardial Effusion
Anne M. Kennedy, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Pathology

        • Clinical Issues

          • Diagnostic Checklist

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Abbreviations

              • Pericardial effusion (PE)
            • Definitions

              • Accumulation of excessive fluid in pericardial space

            IMAGING

            • Ultrasonographic Findings

              • Imaging Recommendations

                DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                  PATHOLOGY

                  • General Features

                    CLINICAL ISSUES

                    • Presentation

                      • Demographics

                        • Natural History & Prognosis

                          • Treatment

                            DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                            • Consider

                              • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                Selected References

                                1. Hichijo A et al: A case of fetal parvovirus b19 myocarditis that caused terminal heart failure. Case Rep Obstet Gynecol. 2014:463571, 2014
                                2. Lin TW et al: Infantile cardiac vascular tumour: from prenatal diagnosis to postnatal treatment. Cardiol Young. 1-4, 2014
                                3. Kalelio─člu IH et al: Intrapericardial diaphragmatic hernia: report of 2 cases with prenatal diagnosis. J Ultrasound Med. 31(11):1825-8, 2012
                                4. Haino K et al: Morgagni hernia with massive pericardial effusion diagnosed in the second trimester: prenatal diagnosis and perinatal management. Fetal Diagn Ther. 29(1):108-10, 2011
                                5. Witters I et al: Pericardial effusion in the first trimester of pregnancy. Prenat Diagn. 31(2):215-7, 2011
                                6. Carrard C et al: Fetal right ventricular diverticulum with pericardial effusion: report of a new case treated by in utero pericardiocentesis. Pediatr Cardiol. 31(6):891-3, 2010
                                7. Rychik J et al: Fetal cardiovascular effects of lower urinary tract obstruction with giant bladder. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 36(6):682-6, 2010
                                8. Sekar P et al: A case of restrictive cardiomyopathy presenting in fetal life with an isolated pericardial effusion. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 35(3):369-72, 2010
                                9. Abi-Nader K et al: Successful outcome after prenatal treatment of a cardiac diverticulum with massive pericardial effusion. Fetal Diagn Ther. 25(1):148-52, 2009
                                10. Steffensen TS et al: Massive pericardial effusion treated with in utero pericardioamniotic shunt in a fetus with intrapericardial teratoma. Fetal Pediatr Pathol. 28(5):216-31, 2009
                                11. Truin G et al: Pericardial and abdominal fluid accumulation in congenital disorder of glycosylation type Ia. Mol Genet Metab. 94(4):481-4, 2008
                                12. Hara K et al: Massive pericardial effusion in an early gestational fetus having intrapericardial diaphragmatic hernia. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 33(4):561-5, 2007
                                13. Pachy F et al: Intrapericardial teratoma with hydrops leading to in utero demise. Prenat Diagn. 27(10):970-2, 2007
                                14. Kamil D et al: Fetal pericardial teratoma causing cardiac insufficiency: Prenatal diagnosis and therapy. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 28(7):972-3, 2006
                                15. Laga S et al: Imminent fetal cardiac tamponade by right atrial hemangioma. Pediatr Cardiol. 27(5):633-5, 2006
                                16. Slesnick TC et al: Characteristics and outcomes of fetuses with pericardial effusions. Am J Cardiol. 96(4):599-601, 2005
                                17. Woodward PJ et al: From the archives of the AFIP: a comprehensive review of fetal tumors with pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 25(1):215-42, 2005
                                18. Azancot A et al: Isolated pericardial effusion in the human fetus: a report of three cases. Prenat Diagn. 23(3):193-7, 2003
                                19. Yoo SJ et al: Normal pericardial fluid in the fetus: color and spectral Doppler analysis. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 18(3):248-52, 2001
                                20. Hirashima C et al: Isolated pericardial effusion and transient abnormal myelopoiesis in a fetus with Down's syndrome. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 26(4):303-6, 2000
                                21. Cesko I et al: Fetal hydropericardium associated with left ventricular diverticulum. Prenat Diagn. 18(7):721-4, 1998
                                22. Dizon-Townson DS et al: A prospective evaluation of fetal pericardial fluid in 506 second-trimester low-risk pregnancies. Obstet Gynecol. 90(6):958-61, 1997
                                23. Sharland G et al: Isolated pericardial effusion: an indication for fetal karyotyping? Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 6(1):29-32, 1995
                                24. Di Salvo DN et al: Clinical significance of isolated fetal pericardial effusion. J Ultrasound Med. 13(4):291-3, 1994
                                Related Anatomy
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                                Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                References
                                Tables

                                Tables

                                KEY FACTS

                                • Terminology

                                  • Imaging

                                    • Pathology

                                      • Clinical Issues

                                        • Diagnostic Checklist

                                          TERMINOLOGY

                                          • Abbreviations

                                            • Pericardial effusion (PE)
                                          • Definitions

                                            • Accumulation of excessive fluid in pericardial space

                                          IMAGING

                                          • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                            • Imaging Recommendations

                                              DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                PATHOLOGY

                                                • General Features

                                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                  • Presentation

                                                    • Demographics

                                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                        • Treatment

                                                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                          • Consider

                                                            • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                              Selected References

                                                              1. Hichijo A et al: A case of fetal parvovirus b19 myocarditis that caused terminal heart failure. Case Rep Obstet Gynecol. 2014:463571, 2014
                                                              2. Lin TW et al: Infantile cardiac vascular tumour: from prenatal diagnosis to postnatal treatment. Cardiol Young. 1-4, 2014
                                                              3. Kalelio─člu IH et al: Intrapericardial diaphragmatic hernia: report of 2 cases with prenatal diagnosis. J Ultrasound Med. 31(11):1825-8, 2012
                                                              4. Haino K et al: Morgagni hernia with massive pericardial effusion diagnosed in the second trimester: prenatal diagnosis and perinatal management. Fetal Diagn Ther. 29(1):108-10, 2011
                                                              5. Witters I et al: Pericardial effusion in the first trimester of pregnancy. Prenat Diagn. 31(2):215-7, 2011
                                                              6. Carrard C et al: Fetal right ventricular diverticulum with pericardial effusion: report of a new case treated by in utero pericardiocentesis. Pediatr Cardiol. 31(6):891-3, 2010
                                                              7. Rychik J et al: Fetal cardiovascular effects of lower urinary tract obstruction with giant bladder. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 36(6):682-6, 2010
                                                              8. Sekar P et al: A case of restrictive cardiomyopathy presenting in fetal life with an isolated pericardial effusion. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 35(3):369-72, 2010
                                                              9. Abi-Nader K et al: Successful outcome after prenatal treatment of a cardiac diverticulum with massive pericardial effusion. Fetal Diagn Ther. 25(1):148-52, 2009
                                                              10. Steffensen TS et al: Massive pericardial effusion treated with in utero pericardioamniotic shunt in a fetus with intrapericardial teratoma. Fetal Pediatr Pathol. 28(5):216-31, 2009
                                                              11. Truin G et al: Pericardial and abdominal fluid accumulation in congenital disorder of glycosylation type Ia. Mol Genet Metab. 94(4):481-4, 2008
                                                              12. Hara K et al: Massive pericardial effusion in an early gestational fetus having intrapericardial diaphragmatic hernia. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 33(4):561-5, 2007
                                                              13. Pachy F et al: Intrapericardial teratoma with hydrops leading to in utero demise. Prenat Diagn. 27(10):970-2, 2007
                                                              14. Kamil D et al: Fetal pericardial teratoma causing cardiac insufficiency: Prenatal diagnosis and therapy. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 28(7):972-3, 2006
                                                              15. Laga S et al: Imminent fetal cardiac tamponade by right atrial hemangioma. Pediatr Cardiol. 27(5):633-5, 2006
                                                              16. Slesnick TC et al: Characteristics and outcomes of fetuses with pericardial effusions. Am J Cardiol. 96(4):599-601, 2005
                                                              17. Woodward PJ et al: From the archives of the AFIP: a comprehensive review of fetal tumors with pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 25(1):215-42, 2005
                                                              18. Azancot A et al: Isolated pericardial effusion in the human fetus: a report of three cases. Prenat Diagn. 23(3):193-7, 2003
                                                              19. Yoo SJ et al: Normal pericardial fluid in the fetus: color and spectral Doppler analysis. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 18(3):248-52, 2001
                                                              20. Hirashima C et al: Isolated pericardial effusion and transient abnormal myelopoiesis in a fetus with Down's syndrome. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 26(4):303-6, 2000
                                                              21. Cesko I et al: Fetal hydropericardium associated with left ventricular diverticulum. Prenat Diagn. 18(7):721-4, 1998
                                                              22. Dizon-Townson DS et al: A prospective evaluation of fetal pericardial fluid in 506 second-trimester low-risk pregnancies. Obstet Gynecol. 90(6):958-61, 1997
                                                              23. Sharland G et al: Isolated pericardial effusion: an indication for fetal karyotyping? Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 6(1):29-32, 1995
                                                              24. Di Salvo DN et al: Clinical significance of isolated fetal pericardial effusion. J Ultrasound Med. 13(4):291-3, 1994