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Pericardial Effusion
Brett W. Carter, MD; Seth Kligerman, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Clinical Issues

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Definitions

            • Abnormal increase of fluid within pericardial sac
            • Cardiopericardial silhouette: Combined pericardial and cardiac silhouettes on radiography

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • Radiographic Findings

              • CT Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Ultrasonographic Findings

                    • Echocardiographic Findings

                      • Imaging Recommendations

                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                          PATHOLOGY

                          • General Features

                            • Pathophysiology

                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                              • Presentation

                                • Treatment

                                  DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                  • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                    Selected References

                                    1. Kligerman S: Imaging of pericardial disease. Radiol Clin North Am. 57(1):179-99, 2019
                                    2. Cummings KW et al: Imaging of pericardial diseases. Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 37(3):238-54, 2016
                                    3. Bogaert J et al: Pericardial disease: value of CT and MR imaging. Radiology. 267(2):340-56, 2013
                                    4. O'Leary SM et al: Imaging the pericardium: appearances on ECG-gated 64-detector row cardiac computed tomography. Br J Radiol. 83(987):194-205, 2010
                                    5. Sun JS et al: CT findings in patients with pericardial effusion: differentiation of malignant and benign disease. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 194(6):W489-94, 2010
                                    6. Palmer SL et al: CT-guided tube pericardiostomy: a safe and effective technique in the management of postsurgical pericardial effusion. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 193(4):W314-20, 2009
                                    7. Parker MS et al: Radiologic signs in thoracic imaging: case-based review and self-assessment module. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 192(3 Suppl):S34-48, 2009. Review. Erratum in: AJR Am J Roentgenol. 193(3 Suppl):S58, 2009
                                    8. Little WC et al: Pericardial disease. Circulation. 113(12):1622-32, 2006. Review. Erratum in: Circulation. 115(15):e406, 2007
                                    9. Restrepo CS et al: Imaging findings in cardiac tamponade with emphasis on CT. Radiographics. 27(6):1595-610, 2007
                                    10. Wang ZJ et al: CT and MR imaging of pericardial disease. Radiographics. 23 Spec No:S167-80, 2003
                                    Related Anatomy
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                                    Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                    References
                                    Tables

                                    Tables

                                    KEY FACTS

                                    • Terminology

                                      • Imaging

                                        • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                          • Clinical Issues

                                            TERMINOLOGY

                                            • Definitions

                                              • Abnormal increase of fluid within pericardial sac
                                              • Cardiopericardial silhouette: Combined pericardial and cardiac silhouettes on radiography

                                            IMAGING

                                            • General Features

                                              • Radiographic Findings

                                                • CT Findings

                                                  • MR Findings

                                                    • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                      • Echocardiographic Findings

                                                        • Imaging Recommendations

                                                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                            PATHOLOGY

                                                            • General Features

                                                              • Pathophysiology

                                                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                • Presentation

                                                                  • Treatment

                                                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                    • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                      Selected References

                                                                      1. Kligerman S: Imaging of pericardial disease. Radiol Clin North Am. 57(1):179-99, 2019
                                                                      2. Cummings KW et al: Imaging of pericardial diseases. Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 37(3):238-54, 2016
                                                                      3. Bogaert J et al: Pericardial disease: value of CT and MR imaging. Radiology. 267(2):340-56, 2013
                                                                      4. O'Leary SM et al: Imaging the pericardium: appearances on ECG-gated 64-detector row cardiac computed tomography. Br J Radiol. 83(987):194-205, 2010
                                                                      5. Sun JS et al: CT findings in patients with pericardial effusion: differentiation of malignant and benign disease. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 194(6):W489-94, 2010
                                                                      6. Palmer SL et al: CT-guided tube pericardiostomy: a safe and effective technique in the management of postsurgical pericardial effusion. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 193(4):W314-20, 2009
                                                                      7. Parker MS et al: Radiologic signs in thoracic imaging: case-based review and self-assessment module. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 192(3 Suppl):S34-48, 2009. Review. Erratum in: AJR Am J Roentgenol. 193(3 Suppl):S58, 2009
                                                                      8. Little WC et al: Pericardial disease. Circulation. 113(12):1622-32, 2006. Review. Erratum in: Circulation. 115(15):e406, 2007
                                                                      9. Restrepo CS et al: Imaging findings in cardiac tamponade with emphasis on CT. Radiographics. 27(6):1595-610, 2007
                                                                      10. Wang ZJ et al: CT and MR imaging of pericardial disease. Radiographics. 23 Spec No:S167-80, 2003