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Periodontal Disease
Dania Tamimi, BDS, DMSc
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            • Diagnostic Checklist

              TERMINOLOGY

              • Synonyms

                • Periodontitis, gingivitis (not visualized radiographically), gum disease (layperson term)
              • Definitions

                • Inflammatory disease of supporting structures of teeth (periodontium)

              IMAGING

              • General Features

                • Radiographic Findings

                  • CT Findings

                    • Imaging Recommendations

                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        PATHOLOGY

                        • General Features

                          CLINICAL ISSUES

                          • Presentation

                            • Demographics

                              • Treatment

                                DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                • Consider

                                  • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                    • Reporting Tips

                                      Selected References

                                      1. Guo YJ et al: A six-site method for the evaluation of periodontal bone loss in cone-beam CT images. Dentomaxillofac Radiol. 45(1):20150265, 2016
                                      2. Bagis N et al: Comparison of intraoral radiography and cone-beam computed tomography for the detection of periodontal defects: an in vitro study. BMC Oral Health. 15:64, 2015
                                      3. Banodkar AB et al: Evaluation of accuracy of cone beam computed tomography for measurement of periodontal defects: A clinical study. J Indian Soc Periodontol. 19(3):285-9, 2015
                                      4. Goodarzi Pour D et al: Accuracy of cone beam computed tomography for detection of bone loss. J Dent (Tehran). 12(7):513-23, 2015
                                      5. Zhao H et al: Assessment of alveolar bone status in middle aged Chinese (40-59 years) with chronic periodontitis--using CBCT. PLoS One. 10(10):e0139553, 2015
                                      6. Alrayyes S et al: Periodontal disease in children. Dis Mon. 57(4):184-91, 2011
                                      7. Bascones-Martinez A et al: Periodontal disease and diabetes-review of the literature. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 16(6):e722-9, 2011
                                      8. Dhingra K et al: Indices for measuring periodontitis: a literature review. Int Dent J. 61(2):76-84, 2011
                                      9. Diaz R: Diabetes: Diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease in youth. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 7(6):313, 2011
                                      10. Dickinson BC et al: Interaction of oral bacteria with gingival epithelial cell multilayers. Mol Oral Microbiol. 26(3):210-20, 2011
                                      11. Rethman MP: Pregnancy and periodontal disease. J Am Dent Assoc. 142(5):484-5, 2011
                                      12. Sanz M et al: Periodontal infections: understanding the complexity--consensus of the Seventh European Workshop on Periodontology. J Clin Periodontol. 38 Suppl 11:3-6, 2011
                                      13. Somma F et al: Oral inflammatory process and general health. Part 2: How does the periapical inflammatory process compromise general health? Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 15(1):35-51, 2011
                                      14. Vered Y et al: Teeth and implant surroundings: clinical health indices and microbiologic parameters. Quintessence Int. 42(4):339-44, 2011
                                      15. Somma F et al: Oral inflammatory process and general health. Part 1: The focal infection and the oral inflammatory lesion. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 14(12):1085-95, 2010
                                      16. Semlali A et al: Whole cigarette smoke promotes human gingival epithelial cell apoptosis and inhibits cell repair processes. J Periodontal Res. 2011 Apr 25. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0765. 2011. Epub ahead of print, 0137
                                      Related Anatomy
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                                      Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                      References
                                      Tables

                                      Tables

                                      KEY FACTS

                                      • Terminology

                                        • Imaging

                                          • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                            • Pathology

                                              • Clinical Issues

                                                • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                  TERMINOLOGY

                                                  • Synonyms

                                                    • Periodontitis, gingivitis (not visualized radiographically), gum disease (layperson term)
                                                  • Definitions

                                                    • Inflammatory disease of supporting structures of teeth (periodontium)

                                                  IMAGING

                                                  • General Features

                                                    • Radiographic Findings

                                                      • CT Findings

                                                        • Imaging Recommendations

                                                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                            PATHOLOGY

                                                            • General Features

                                                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                              • Presentation

                                                                • Demographics

                                                                  • Treatment

                                                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                    • Consider

                                                                      • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                        • Reporting Tips

                                                                          Selected References

                                                                          1. Guo YJ et al: A six-site method for the evaluation of periodontal bone loss in cone-beam CT images. Dentomaxillofac Radiol. 45(1):20150265, 2016
                                                                          2. Bagis N et al: Comparison of intraoral radiography and cone-beam computed tomography for the detection of periodontal defects: an in vitro study. BMC Oral Health. 15:64, 2015
                                                                          3. Banodkar AB et al: Evaluation of accuracy of cone beam computed tomography for measurement of periodontal defects: A clinical study. J Indian Soc Periodontol. 19(3):285-9, 2015
                                                                          4. Goodarzi Pour D et al: Accuracy of cone beam computed tomography for detection of bone loss. J Dent (Tehran). 12(7):513-23, 2015
                                                                          5. Zhao H et al: Assessment of alveolar bone status in middle aged Chinese (40-59 years) with chronic periodontitis--using CBCT. PLoS One. 10(10):e0139553, 2015
                                                                          6. Alrayyes S et al: Periodontal disease in children. Dis Mon. 57(4):184-91, 2011
                                                                          7. Bascones-Martinez A et al: Periodontal disease and diabetes-review of the literature. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 16(6):e722-9, 2011
                                                                          8. Dhingra K et al: Indices for measuring periodontitis: a literature review. Int Dent J. 61(2):76-84, 2011
                                                                          9. Diaz R: Diabetes: Diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease in youth. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 7(6):313, 2011
                                                                          10. Dickinson BC et al: Interaction of oral bacteria with gingival epithelial cell multilayers. Mol Oral Microbiol. 26(3):210-20, 2011
                                                                          11. Rethman MP: Pregnancy and periodontal disease. J Am Dent Assoc. 142(5):484-5, 2011
                                                                          12. Sanz M et al: Periodontal infections: understanding the complexity--consensus of the Seventh European Workshop on Periodontology. J Clin Periodontol. 38 Suppl 11:3-6, 2011
                                                                          13. Somma F et al: Oral inflammatory process and general health. Part 2: How does the periapical inflammatory process compromise general health? Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 15(1):35-51, 2011
                                                                          14. Vered Y et al: Teeth and implant surroundings: clinical health indices and microbiologic parameters. Quintessence Int. 42(4):339-44, 2011
                                                                          15. Somma F et al: Oral inflammatory process and general health. Part 1: The focal infection and the oral inflammatory lesion. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 14(12):1085-95, 2010
                                                                          16. Semlali A et al: Whole cigarette smoke promotes human gingival epithelial cell apoptosis and inhibits cell repair processes. J Periodontal Res. 2011 Apr 25. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0765. 2011. Epub ahead of print, 0137