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Peripheral Arterial Occlusive Disease
Mark Little, MD; Simon S. M. Ho, MBBS, FRCR; Mark E. Lockhart, MD, MPH
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            • Diagnostic Checklist

              TERMINOLOGY

              • Abbreviations

                • Peripheral arterial disease (PAD)
              • Definitions

                • Stenosis: Abnormal diameter narrowing of arterial lumen
                • Occlusion: Completely blocked arterial lumen with no flow present
                • Intermittent claudication (IC): Reproducible ischemic muscle pain provoked by exercise and relieved with rest; most commonly affects calf but can affect thigh and buttocks
                • Critical limb ischemia (CLI): Severe form of PAD manifested by chronic limb pain and tissue loss (ulceration and gangrene)
                • Acute limb ischemia (ALI): Sudden loss of blood flow that imperils limb; more typically embolic or traumatic

              IMAGING

              • Ultrasonographic Findings

                • Imaging Recommendations

                  DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                    PATHOLOGY

                    • General Features

                      CLINICAL ISSUES

                      • Presentation

                        • Treatment

                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                          • Image Interpretation Pearls

                            • Arterial Stenosis Assessment

                              Selected References

                              1. Stoner MC et al: Reporting standards of the Society for Vascular Surgery for endovascular treatment of chronic lower extremity peripheral artery disease. J Vasc Surg. 64(1):e1-e21, 2016
                              2. Conte MS et al: Society for Vascular Surgery Practice guidelines for atherosclerotic occlusive disease of the lower extremities management of asymptomatic disease and claudication. Introduction. J Vasc Surg. 61(3 Suppl):1S, 2015
                              3. Thukkani AK et al: Endovascular intervention for peripheral artery disease. Circ Res. 116(9):1599-613, 2015
                              4. Schillinger M et al: Percutaneous treatment of peripheral artery disease: novel techniques. Circulation. 126(20):2433-40, 2012
                              5. Norgren L et al: Inter-Society Consensus for the management of peripheral arterial disease (TASC II). Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 33 Suppl 1:S1-75, 2007
                              6. Zwiebel WJ et al: Introduction to Vascular Ultrasonography. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders, 2005
                              Related Anatomy
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                              Related Differential Diagnoses
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                              References
                              Tables

                              Tables

                              KEY FACTS

                              • Terminology

                                • Imaging

                                  • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                    • Pathology

                                      • Clinical Issues

                                        • Diagnostic Checklist

                                          TERMINOLOGY

                                          • Abbreviations

                                            • Peripheral arterial disease (PAD)
                                          • Definitions

                                            • Stenosis: Abnormal diameter narrowing of arterial lumen
                                            • Occlusion: Completely blocked arterial lumen with no flow present
                                            • Intermittent claudication (IC): Reproducible ischemic muscle pain provoked by exercise and relieved with rest; most commonly affects calf but can affect thigh and buttocks
                                            • Critical limb ischemia (CLI): Severe form of PAD manifested by chronic limb pain and tissue loss (ulceration and gangrene)
                                            • Acute limb ischemia (ALI): Sudden loss of blood flow that imperils limb; more typically embolic or traumatic

                                          IMAGING

                                          • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                            • Imaging Recommendations

                                              DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                PATHOLOGY

                                                • General Features

                                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                  • Presentation

                                                    • Treatment

                                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                      • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                        • Arterial Stenosis Assessment

                                                          Selected References

                                                          1. Stoner MC et al: Reporting standards of the Society for Vascular Surgery for endovascular treatment of chronic lower extremity peripheral artery disease. J Vasc Surg. 64(1):e1-e21, 2016
                                                          2. Conte MS et al: Society for Vascular Surgery Practice guidelines for atherosclerotic occlusive disease of the lower extremities management of asymptomatic disease and claudication. Introduction. J Vasc Surg. 61(3 Suppl):1S, 2015
                                                          3. Thukkani AK et al: Endovascular intervention for peripheral artery disease. Circ Res. 116(9):1599-613, 2015
                                                          4. Schillinger M et al: Percutaneous treatment of peripheral artery disease: novel techniques. Circulation. 126(20):2433-40, 2012
                                                          5. Norgren L et al: Inter-Society Consensus for the management of peripheral arterial disease (TASC II). Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 33 Suppl 1:S1-75, 2007
                                                          6. Zwiebel WJ et al: Introduction to Vascular Ultrasonography. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders, 2005