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Peritonitis
Siva P. Raman, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Definitions

            • Inflammation involving peritoneal lining or peritoneal cavity, which may be infectious or noninfectious in etiology

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • CT Findings

              • MR Findings

                • Ultrasonographic Findings

                  • Radiographic Findings

                    • Imaging Recommendations

                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        PATHOLOGY

                        • General Features

                          • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                            • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                              • Microscopic Features

                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                • Presentation

                                  • Demographics

                                    • Natural History & Prognosis

                                      • Treatment

                                        DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                        • Consider

                                          • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                            Selected References

                                            1. Ameer MA et al: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. StatPearls [Internet]. StatPearls Publishing, 2021
                                            2. Lasheen O et al: Abdominal cocoon or encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis: a rare cause of small bowel obstruction. Eur J Case Rep Intern Med. 7(12):001972, 2020
                                            3. Filippone A et al: CT findings in acute peritonitis: a pattern-based approach. Diagn Interv Radiol. 21(6):435-40, 2015
                                            4. Baker PM et al: Selected topics in peritoneal pathology. Int J Gynecol Pathol. 33(4):393-401, 2014
                                            5. Strauss E: The impact of bacterial infections on survival of patients with decompensated cirrhosis. Ann Hepatol. 13(1):7-19, 2013
                                            6. Cakir B et al: Complications of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis: evaluation with CT. Diagn Interv Radiol. 14(4):212-20, 2008
                                            7. Na-ChiangMai W et al: CT findings of tuberculous peritonitis. Singapore Med J. 49(6):488-91, 2008
                                            8. Yehia M et al: Is computerized tomography useful in identifying abdominal catastrophes in patients presenting with peritonitis? Perit Dial Int. 28(4):385-90, 2008
                                            9. George C et al: Computed tomography appearances of sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis. Clin Radiol. 62(8):732-7, 2007
                                            10. Xu P et al: Idiopathic sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (or abdominal cocoon): a report of 5 cases. World J Gastroenterol. 13(26):3649-51, 2007
                                            11. Alberti LE et al: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in a patient with myxedema ascites. Digestion. 68(2-3):91-3, 2003
                                            12. Brook I: Microbiology and management of intra-abdominal infections in children. Pediatr Int. 45(2):123-9, 2003
                                            13. Cheadle WG et al: The continuing challenge of intra-abdominal infection. Am J Surg. 186(5A):15S-22S; discussion 31S-34S, 2003
                                            14. Chow KM et al: Indication for peritoneal biopsy in tuberculous peritonitis. Am J Surg. 185(6):567-73, 2003
                                            15. Hanbidge AE et al: US of the peritoneum. Radiographics. 23(3):663-84; discussion 684-5, 2003
                                            16. Malangoni MA: Current concepts in peritonitis. Curr Gastroenterol Rep. 5(4):295-301, 2003
                                            17. Marshall JC et al: Intensive care unit management of intra-abdominal infection. Crit Care Med. 31(8):2228-37, 2003
                                            18. Nishie A et al: Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome. Radiologic manifestation. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 27(5):786-91, 2003
                                            19. Reijnen MM et al: Pathophysiology of intra-abdominal adhesion and abscess formation, and the effect of hyaluronan. Br J Surg. 90(5):533-41, 2003
                                            20. Runyon BA: Strips and tubes: improving the diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Hepatology. 37(4):745-7, 2003
                                            21. Sabri M et al: Pathophysiology and management of pediatric ascites. Curr Gastroenterol Rep. 5(3):240-6, 2003
                                            22. Shetty H et al: Treatment of infections in peritoneal dialysis. Contrib Nephrol. (140):187-94, 2003
                                            23. Sivit CJ et al: Imaging of acute appendicitis in children. Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 24(2):74-82, 2003
                                            24. Troidle L et al: Continuous peritoneal dialysis-associated peritonitis: a review and current concepts. Semin Dial. 16(6):428-37, 2003
                                            25. Veroux M et al: A rare surgical complication of Crohn's diseases: free peritoneal perforation. Minerva Chir. 58(3):351-4, 2003
                                            26. Witte MB et al: Repair of full-thickness bowel injury. Crit Care Med. 31(8 Suppl):S538-46, 2003
                                            27. Yao V et al: Role of peritoneal mesothelial cells in peritonitis. Br J Surg. 90(10):1187-94, 2003
                                            Related Anatomy
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                                            Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                            References
                                            Tables

                                            Tables

                                            KEY FACTS

                                            • Terminology

                                              • Imaging

                                                • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                  • Pathology

                                                    TERMINOLOGY

                                                    • Definitions

                                                      • Inflammation involving peritoneal lining or peritoneal cavity, which may be infectious or noninfectious in etiology

                                                    IMAGING

                                                    • General Features

                                                      • CT Findings

                                                        • MR Findings

                                                          • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                            • Radiographic Findings

                                                              • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                  PATHOLOGY

                                                                  • General Features

                                                                    • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                      • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                        • Microscopic Features

                                                                          CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                          • Presentation

                                                                            • Demographics

                                                                              • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                • Treatment

                                                                                  DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                  • Consider

                                                                                    • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                      Selected References

                                                                                      1. Ameer MA et al: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. StatPearls [Internet]. StatPearls Publishing, 2021
                                                                                      2. Lasheen O et al: Abdominal cocoon or encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis: a rare cause of small bowel obstruction. Eur J Case Rep Intern Med. 7(12):001972, 2020
                                                                                      3. Filippone A et al: CT findings in acute peritonitis: a pattern-based approach. Diagn Interv Radiol. 21(6):435-40, 2015
                                                                                      4. Baker PM et al: Selected topics in peritoneal pathology. Int J Gynecol Pathol. 33(4):393-401, 2014
                                                                                      5. Strauss E: The impact of bacterial infections on survival of patients with decompensated cirrhosis. Ann Hepatol. 13(1):7-19, 2013
                                                                                      6. Cakir B et al: Complications of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis: evaluation with CT. Diagn Interv Radiol. 14(4):212-20, 2008
                                                                                      7. Na-ChiangMai W et al: CT findings of tuberculous peritonitis. Singapore Med J. 49(6):488-91, 2008
                                                                                      8. Yehia M et al: Is computerized tomography useful in identifying abdominal catastrophes in patients presenting with peritonitis? Perit Dial Int. 28(4):385-90, 2008
                                                                                      9. George C et al: Computed tomography appearances of sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis. Clin Radiol. 62(8):732-7, 2007
                                                                                      10. Xu P et al: Idiopathic sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (or abdominal cocoon): a report of 5 cases. World J Gastroenterol. 13(26):3649-51, 2007
                                                                                      11. Alberti LE et al: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in a patient with myxedema ascites. Digestion. 68(2-3):91-3, 2003
                                                                                      12. Brook I: Microbiology and management of intra-abdominal infections in children. Pediatr Int. 45(2):123-9, 2003
                                                                                      13. Cheadle WG et al: The continuing challenge of intra-abdominal infection. Am J Surg. 186(5A):15S-22S; discussion 31S-34S, 2003
                                                                                      14. Chow KM et al: Indication for peritoneal biopsy in tuberculous peritonitis. Am J Surg. 185(6):567-73, 2003
                                                                                      15. Hanbidge AE et al: US of the peritoneum. Radiographics. 23(3):663-84; discussion 684-5, 2003
                                                                                      16. Malangoni MA: Current concepts in peritonitis. Curr Gastroenterol Rep. 5(4):295-301, 2003
                                                                                      17. Marshall JC et al: Intensive care unit management of intra-abdominal infection. Crit Care Med. 31(8):2228-37, 2003
                                                                                      18. Nishie A et al: Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome. Radiologic manifestation. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 27(5):786-91, 2003
                                                                                      19. Reijnen MM et al: Pathophysiology of intra-abdominal adhesion and abscess formation, and the effect of hyaluronan. Br J Surg. 90(5):533-41, 2003
                                                                                      20. Runyon BA: Strips and tubes: improving the diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Hepatology. 37(4):745-7, 2003
                                                                                      21. Sabri M et al: Pathophysiology and management of pediatric ascites. Curr Gastroenterol Rep. 5(3):240-6, 2003
                                                                                      22. Shetty H et al: Treatment of infections in peritoneal dialysis. Contrib Nephrol. (140):187-94, 2003
                                                                                      23. Sivit CJ et al: Imaging of acute appendicitis in children. Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 24(2):74-82, 2003
                                                                                      24. Troidle L et al: Continuous peritoneal dialysis-associated peritonitis: a review and current concepts. Semin Dial. 16(6):428-37, 2003
                                                                                      25. Veroux M et al: A rare surgical complication of Crohn's diseases: free peritoneal perforation. Minerva Chir. 58(3):351-4, 2003
                                                                                      26. Witte MB et al: Repair of full-thickness bowel injury. Crit Care Med. 31(8 Suppl):S538-46, 2003
                                                                                      27. Yao V et al: Role of peritoneal mesothelial cells in peritonitis. Br J Surg. 90(10):1187-94, 2003