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Persistent Hypoglossal Artery
Kevin R. Moore, MD; Jeffrey S. Ross, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Top Differential Diagnoses

      • Pathology

        • Clinical Issues

          • Diagnostic Checklist

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Synonyms

              • Primitive hypoglossal artery, fetal hypoglossal artery
            • Definitions

              • Persistent fetal carotid-basilar anastomosis from internal carotid artery (ICA) through hypoglossal canal to basilar artery

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • CT Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Imaging Recommendations

                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                      PATHOLOGY

                      • General Features

                        CLINICAL ISSUES

                        • Presentation

                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                          • Consider

                            Selected References

                            1. Ozawa M et al: Bilateral persistent hypoglossal arteries: a case report and literature review. Surg Radiol Anat. 41(9):1083-5, 2019
                            2. Uchino A: Carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomosis: magnetic resonance and computed tomographic angiographic demonstration. Jpn J Radiol. 37(8):565-78, 2019
                            3. Yamamoto R et al: Anomalous anastomosis between the external carotid artery and vertebrobasilar artery via the hypoglossal canal: a case report and review of literature. Surg Radiol Anat. 41(7):849-52, 2019
                            4. OʼDonnell CM et al: Vertebral artery anomalies at the craniovertebral junction in the US population. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 39(18):E1053-7, 2014
                            5. Binning MJ et al: Cerebellar hemangioblastoma supplied by persistent hypoglossal artery. J Neurointerv Surg. 4(3):e3, 2012
                            6. Minné C et al: Persistent primitive hypoglossal artery (a normal variant) as the sole supply to the brain. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 23(3):426-8, 2012
                            7. Pavlisa G et al: Endovascular treatment of AVM-associated aneurysm of anterior inferior cerebellar artery through persistent primitive hypoglossal artery. Br J Neurosurg. 26(1):86-8, 2012
                            8. Takahashi H et al: Bilateral persistent hypoglossal arteries: MRI findings. Br J Radiol. 85(1010):e46-8, 2012
                            9. Clerici AM et al: De-novo headache with transient vertebro-basilar symptoms: role of embryonic hypoglossal artery. J Headache Pain. 12(6):639-43, 2011
                            10. Hui FK et al: Endovascular treatment of an aneurysm of a persistent primitive hypoglossal artery with complete resolution of brainstem compressive symptoms: case report. Neurosurgery. 68(3):E854-7; discussion E857, 2011
                            11. Tubbs RS et al: Persistent fetal intracranial arteries: a comprehensive review of anatomical and clinical significance. J Neurosurg. 114(4):1127-34, 2011
                            12. Uchino A et al: Persistent hypoglossal artery arising from the external carotid artery diagnosed by MR angiography. Surg Radiol Anat. 33(6):543-5, 2011
                            13. Lee EJ et al: Rare variant of persistent primitive hypoglossal artery in magnetic resonance angiography. Surg Radiol Anat. 32(8):801-4, 2010
                            14. Merrow AC: Persistent hypoglossal artery. Pediatr Radiol. 40 Suppl 1:S162, 2010
                            15. Ulm AJ et al: Normal anatomical variations of the V₃ segment of the vertebral artery: surgical implications. J Neurosurg Spine. 13(4):451-60, 2010
                            16. Uzawa A et al: Posterior cerebral artery territory infarction associated with persistent primitive hypoglossal artery with internal carotid artery atherosclerosis. Intern Med. 49(5):515-6, 2010
                            17. De Blasi R et al: A case of aneurysm on a persistent hypoglossal artery treated by endovascular coiling. Interv Neuroradiol. 15(2):175-8, 2009
                            Related Anatomy
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                            Related Differential Diagnoses
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                            References
                            Tables

                            Tables

                            KEY FACTS

                            • Terminology

                              • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                • Pathology

                                  • Clinical Issues

                                    • Diagnostic Checklist

                                      TERMINOLOGY

                                      • Synonyms

                                        • Primitive hypoglossal artery, fetal hypoglossal artery
                                      • Definitions

                                        • Persistent fetal carotid-basilar anastomosis from internal carotid artery (ICA) through hypoglossal canal to basilar artery

                                      IMAGING

                                      • General Features

                                        • CT Findings

                                          • MR Findings

                                            • Imaging Recommendations

                                              DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                PATHOLOGY

                                                • General Features

                                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                  • Presentation

                                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                    • Consider

                                                      Selected References

                                                      1. Ozawa M et al: Bilateral persistent hypoglossal arteries: a case report and literature review. Surg Radiol Anat. 41(9):1083-5, 2019
                                                      2. Uchino A: Carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomosis: magnetic resonance and computed tomographic angiographic demonstration. Jpn J Radiol. 37(8):565-78, 2019
                                                      3. Yamamoto R et al: Anomalous anastomosis between the external carotid artery and vertebrobasilar artery via the hypoglossal canal: a case report and review of literature. Surg Radiol Anat. 41(7):849-52, 2019
                                                      4. OʼDonnell CM et al: Vertebral artery anomalies at the craniovertebral junction in the US population. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 39(18):E1053-7, 2014
                                                      5. Binning MJ et al: Cerebellar hemangioblastoma supplied by persistent hypoglossal artery. J Neurointerv Surg. 4(3):e3, 2012
                                                      6. Minné C et al: Persistent primitive hypoglossal artery (a normal variant) as the sole supply to the brain. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 23(3):426-8, 2012
                                                      7. Pavlisa G et al: Endovascular treatment of AVM-associated aneurysm of anterior inferior cerebellar artery through persistent primitive hypoglossal artery. Br J Neurosurg. 26(1):86-8, 2012
                                                      8. Takahashi H et al: Bilateral persistent hypoglossal arteries: MRI findings. Br J Radiol. 85(1010):e46-8, 2012
                                                      9. Clerici AM et al: De-novo headache with transient vertebro-basilar symptoms: role of embryonic hypoglossal artery. J Headache Pain. 12(6):639-43, 2011
                                                      10. Hui FK et al: Endovascular treatment of an aneurysm of a persistent primitive hypoglossal artery with complete resolution of brainstem compressive symptoms: case report. Neurosurgery. 68(3):E854-7; discussion E857, 2011
                                                      11. Tubbs RS et al: Persistent fetal intracranial arteries: a comprehensive review of anatomical and clinical significance. J Neurosurg. 114(4):1127-34, 2011
                                                      12. Uchino A et al: Persistent hypoglossal artery arising from the external carotid artery diagnosed by MR angiography. Surg Radiol Anat. 33(6):543-5, 2011
                                                      13. Lee EJ et al: Rare variant of persistent primitive hypoglossal artery in magnetic resonance angiography. Surg Radiol Anat. 32(8):801-4, 2010
                                                      14. Merrow AC: Persistent hypoglossal artery. Pediatr Radiol. 40 Suppl 1:S162, 2010
                                                      15. Ulm AJ et al: Normal anatomical variations of the V₃ segment of the vertebral artery: surgical implications. J Neurosurg Spine. 13(4):451-60, 2010
                                                      16. Uzawa A et al: Posterior cerebral artery territory infarction associated with persistent primitive hypoglossal artery with internal carotid artery atherosclerosis. Intern Med. 49(5):515-6, 2010
                                                      17. De Blasi R et al: A case of aneurysm on a persistent hypoglossal artery treated by endovascular coiling. Interv Neuroradiol. 15(2):175-8, 2009