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Persistent Proatlantal Artery
Kevin R. Moore, MD; Jeffrey S. Ross, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Synonyms

              • Persistent primitive proatlantal intersegmental artery
              • Persistent proatlantal artery
            • Definitions

              • Persistent fetal carotid-basilar anastomosis with course from internal carotid artery (ICA) or external carotid artery (ECA) to basilar artery at C1 level

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • CT Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Imaging Recommendations

                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                      PATHOLOGY

                      • General Features

                        • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                          CLINICAL ISSUES

                          • Presentation

                            • Demographics

                              Selected References

                              1. Choudhary G et al: Type 2 persistent primitive proatlantal intersegmental artery, a rare variant of persistent carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomoses. Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent). 32(1):101-4, 2019
                              2. Uchino A: Carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomosis: magnetic resonance and computed tomographic angiographic demonstration. Jpn J Radiol. 37(8):565-78, 2019
                              3. Choi Y et al: A Type 1 Persistent proatlantal artery originating from the external carotid artery detected by computed tomographic angiography. J Cerebrovasc Endovasc Neurosurg. 20(4):231-4, 2018
                              4. Cappabianca S et al: Extracranial internal carotid artery: anatomical variations in asymptomatic patients. Surg Radiol Anat. 38(8):893-902, 2016
                              5. O╩╝Donnell CM et al: Vertebral artery anomalies at the craniovertebral junction in the US population. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 39(18):E1053-7, 2014
                              6. Cao YH et al: Proatlantal intersegmental artery with absence of the common carotid artery. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 113(3):245-6, 2011
                              7. Tubbs RS et al: Persistent fetal intracranial arteries: a comprehensive review of anatomical and clinical significance. J Neurosurg. 114(4):1127-34, 2011
                              8. Dimmick SJ et al: Normal variants of the cerebral circulation at multidetector CT angiography. Radiographics. 29(4):1027-43, 2009
                              9. Li TH et al: Type II proatlantal intersegmental artery associated with objective pulsatile tinnitus. Neurology. 71(4):295-6, 2008
                              10. Purkayastha S et al: Proatlantal intersegmental arteries of external carotid artery origin associated with Galen's vein malformation. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 26(9):2378-83, 2005
                              11. Grego F et al: Primitive proatlantal intersegmental artery and carotid endarterectomy. J Vasc Surg. 39(3):691, 2004
                              12. Gumus T et al: Bilateral persistence of type 1 proatlantal arteries: report of a case and review of the literature. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 25(9):1622-4, 2004
                              13. Woodcock RJ et al: Bilateral type 1 proatlantal arteries with absence of vertebral arteries. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 22(2):418-20, 2001
                              14. Bahsi YZ et al: Persistent primitive proatlantal intersegmental artery (proatlantal artery I) results in 'top of the basilar' syndrome. Stroke. 24(12):2114-7, 1993
                              15. Tanaka Y et al: Proatlantal intersegmental artery and trigeminal artery associated with an aneurysm. Case report. J Neurosurg. 59(3):520-3, 1983
                              16. Obayashi T et al: The proatlantal intersegmental artery: a case report and review of the literature. Arch Neurol. 37(6):387-9, 1980
                              17. Bloch S et al: Proatlantal intersegmental artery. Neuroradiology. 7(1):5-8, 1974
                              Related Anatomy
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                              Related Differential Diagnoses
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                              References
                              Tables

                              Tables

                              KEY FACTS

                              • Terminology

                                • Imaging

                                  • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                    • Pathology

                                      • Clinical Issues

                                        TERMINOLOGY

                                        • Synonyms

                                          • Persistent primitive proatlantal intersegmental artery
                                          • Persistent proatlantal artery
                                        • Definitions

                                          • Persistent fetal carotid-basilar anastomosis with course from internal carotid artery (ICA) or external carotid artery (ECA) to basilar artery at C1 level

                                        IMAGING

                                        • General Features

                                          • CT Findings

                                            • MR Findings

                                              • Imaging Recommendations

                                                DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                  PATHOLOGY

                                                  • General Features

                                                    • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                      CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                      • Presentation

                                                        • Demographics

                                                          Selected References

                                                          1. Choudhary G et al: Type 2 persistent primitive proatlantal intersegmental artery, a rare variant of persistent carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomoses. Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent). 32(1):101-4, 2019
                                                          2. Uchino A: Carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomosis: magnetic resonance and computed tomographic angiographic demonstration. Jpn J Radiol. 37(8):565-78, 2019
                                                          3. Choi Y et al: A Type 1 Persistent proatlantal artery originating from the external carotid artery detected by computed tomographic angiography. J Cerebrovasc Endovasc Neurosurg. 20(4):231-4, 2018
                                                          4. Cappabianca S et al: Extracranial internal carotid artery: anatomical variations in asymptomatic patients. Surg Radiol Anat. 38(8):893-902, 2016
                                                          5. O╩╝Donnell CM et al: Vertebral artery anomalies at the craniovertebral junction in the US population. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 39(18):E1053-7, 2014
                                                          6. Cao YH et al: Proatlantal intersegmental artery with absence of the common carotid artery. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 113(3):245-6, 2011
                                                          7. Tubbs RS et al: Persistent fetal intracranial arteries: a comprehensive review of anatomical and clinical significance. J Neurosurg. 114(4):1127-34, 2011
                                                          8. Dimmick SJ et al: Normal variants of the cerebral circulation at multidetector CT angiography. Radiographics. 29(4):1027-43, 2009
                                                          9. Li TH et al: Type II proatlantal intersegmental artery associated with objective pulsatile tinnitus. Neurology. 71(4):295-6, 2008
                                                          10. Purkayastha S et al: Proatlantal intersegmental arteries of external carotid artery origin associated with Galen's vein malformation. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 26(9):2378-83, 2005
                                                          11. Grego F et al: Primitive proatlantal intersegmental artery and carotid endarterectomy. J Vasc Surg. 39(3):691, 2004
                                                          12. Gumus T et al: Bilateral persistence of type 1 proatlantal arteries: report of a case and review of the literature. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 25(9):1622-4, 2004
                                                          13. Woodcock RJ et al: Bilateral type 1 proatlantal arteries with absence of vertebral arteries. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 22(2):418-20, 2001
                                                          14. Bahsi YZ et al: Persistent primitive proatlantal intersegmental artery (proatlantal artery I) results in 'top of the basilar' syndrome. Stroke. 24(12):2114-7, 1993
                                                          15. Tanaka Y et al: Proatlantal intersegmental artery and trigeminal artery associated with an aneurysm. Case report. J Neurosurg. 59(3):520-3, 1983
                                                          16. Obayashi T et al: The proatlantal intersegmental artery: a case report and review of the literature. Arch Neurol. 37(6):387-9, 1980
                                                          17. Bloch S et al: Proatlantal intersegmental artery. Neuroradiology. 7(1):5-8, 1974