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Petrous Apex Cephalocele
H. Ric Harnsberger, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Clinical Issues

          • Diagnostic Checklist

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Abbreviations

              • Petrous apex (PA) cephalocele (PAC)
            • Synonyms

              • PA arachnoid cyst, cavum trigeminale cephalocele
            • Definitions

              • Congenital or acquired herniation of posterolateral wall of Meckel cave (MC) into PA

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • CT Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Imaging Recommendations

                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                      PATHOLOGY

                      • General Features

                        • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                          • Microscopic Features

                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                            • Presentation

                              • Demographics

                                • Treatment

                                  DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                  • Consider

                                    • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                      Selected References

                                      1. Boppel T et al: Excavating Meckel's cave: Cavum-trigeminale-cephaloceles (CTCs). J Neuroradiol. 42(3):156-61, 2015
                                      2. Jamjoom DZ et al: The association between petrous apex cephalocele and empty sella. Surg Radiol Anat. 37(10):1179-82, 2015
                                      3. Hatipo─člu HG et al: Petrous apex cephalocele and empty sella/arachnoid cyst coexistence: a clue for cerebrospinal fluid pressure imbalance? Diagn Interv Radiol. 16(1):7-9, 2010
                                      4. Stark TA et al: Dilation of the subarachnoid spaces surrounding the cranial nerves with petrous apex cephaloceles in Usher syndrome. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 30(2):434-6, 2009
                                      5. Alorainy IA: Petrous apex cephalocele and empty sella: is there any relation? Eur J Radiol. 62(3):378-84, 2007
                                      6. Leonetti JP et al: Incidental petrous apex findings on magnetic resonance imaging. Ear Nose Throat J. 80(4):200-2, 205-6, 2001
                                      7. Moore KR et al: Petrous apex cephaloceles. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 22(10):1867-71, 2001
                                      8. Vergoni G et al: Spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhoea in anteromedial temporal occult encephalocele. Br J Neurosurg. 15(2):156-8, 2001
                                      9. Cheung SW et al: Petrous apex arachnoid cyst: radiographic confusion with primary cholesteatoma. Am J Otol. 16(5):690-4, 1995
                                      10. Beaumont GD et al: Encephalocoele involving the petrous bone. Neuroradiology. 32(6):533-4, 1990
                                      Related Anatomy
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                                      Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                      References
                                      Tables

                                      Tables

                                      KEY FACTS

                                      • Terminology

                                        • Imaging

                                          • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                            • Clinical Issues

                                              • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                TERMINOLOGY

                                                • Abbreviations

                                                  • Petrous apex (PA) cephalocele (PAC)
                                                • Synonyms

                                                  • PA arachnoid cyst, cavum trigeminale cephalocele
                                                • Definitions

                                                  • Congenital or acquired herniation of posterolateral wall of Meckel cave (MC) into PA

                                                IMAGING

                                                • General Features

                                                  • CT Findings

                                                    • MR Findings

                                                      • Imaging Recommendations

                                                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                          PATHOLOGY

                                                          • General Features

                                                            • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                              • Microscopic Features

                                                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                • Presentation

                                                                  • Demographics

                                                                    • Treatment

                                                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                      • Consider

                                                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                          Selected References

                                                                          1. Boppel T et al: Excavating Meckel's cave: Cavum-trigeminale-cephaloceles (CTCs). J Neuroradiol. 42(3):156-61, 2015
                                                                          2. Jamjoom DZ et al: The association between petrous apex cephalocele and empty sella. Surg Radiol Anat. 37(10):1179-82, 2015
                                                                          3. Hatipo─člu HG et al: Petrous apex cephalocele and empty sella/arachnoid cyst coexistence: a clue for cerebrospinal fluid pressure imbalance? Diagn Interv Radiol. 16(1):7-9, 2010
                                                                          4. Stark TA et al: Dilation of the subarachnoid spaces surrounding the cranial nerves with petrous apex cephaloceles in Usher syndrome. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 30(2):434-6, 2009
                                                                          5. Alorainy IA: Petrous apex cephalocele and empty sella: is there any relation? Eur J Radiol. 62(3):378-84, 2007
                                                                          6. Leonetti JP et al: Incidental petrous apex findings on magnetic resonance imaging. Ear Nose Throat J. 80(4):200-2, 205-6, 2001
                                                                          7. Moore KR et al: Petrous apex cephaloceles. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 22(10):1867-71, 2001
                                                                          8. Vergoni G et al: Spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhoea in anteromedial temporal occult encephalocele. Br J Neurosurg. 15(2):156-8, 2001
                                                                          9. Cheung SW et al: Petrous apex arachnoid cyst: radiographic confusion with primary cholesteatoma. Am J Otol. 16(5):690-4, 1995
                                                                          10. Beaumont GD et al: Encephalocoele involving the petrous bone. Neuroradiology. 32(6):533-4, 1990