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Pituitary Disorders: Acromegaly, Gigantism, and Growth Hormone Deficiency
Kirkland W. Davis, MD, FACR; Cheryl A. Petersilge, MD, MBA
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Definitions

              • Acromegaly: onset of disease after physes closed
              • Gigantism: onset of disease before physes closed

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • Imaging Recommendations

                • Radiography: Acromegaly

                  • Radiography: Hypopituitarism

                    • CT Findings

                      • MR Findings

                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                          PATHOLOGY

                          • General Features

                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                            • Presentation

                              • Demographics

                                • Treatment

                                  Selected References

                                  1. Tidblad A: The history, physiology and treatment safety of growth hormone. Acta Paediatr. 111(2):215-24, 2022
                                  2. Asa SL et al: An update on pituitary neuroendocrine tumors leading to acromegaly and gigantism. J Clin Med. 10(11), 2021
                                  3. Banskota S et al: Pituitary adenomas: from diagnosis to therapeutics. Biomedicines. 9(5), 2021
                                  4. Sisco J et al: Towards an earlier diagnosis of acromegaly and gigantism. J Clin Med. 10(7), 2021
                                  5. Gupta AK et al: Imaging in short stature and bone age estimation. Indian J Pediatr. 86(10):939-51, 2019
                                  6. Colao A et al: The effects of somatostatin analogue therapy on pituitary tumor volume in patients with acromegaly. Pituitary. 19(2):210-21, 2016
                                  7. Rosenbloom AL: A half-century of studies of growth hormone insensitivity/Laron syndrome: a historical perspective. Growth Horm IGF Res. 28:46-50, 2016
                                  8. Margusino-Framiñán L et al: Cost-effectiveness analysis of preoperative treatment of acromegaly with somatostatin analogue on surgical outcome. Eur J Intern Med. 26(9):736-41, 2015
                                  9. Wang CY et al: Idiopathic growth hormone deficiency in the morphologically normal pituitary gland is associated with perfusion delay. Radiology. 258(1):213-21, 2011
                                  10. Chanson P: [Acromegaly.] Presse Med. 38(1):92-102, 2009
                                  11. Kornreich L et al: Abnormalities of the axial and proximal appendicular skeleton in adults with Laron syndrome (growth hormone insensitivity). Skeletal Radiol. 37(2):153-60, 2008
                                  12. Miller A et al: Impact of musculoskeletal disease on quality of life in long-standing acromegaly. Eur J Endocrinol. 158(5):587-93, 2008
                                  13. Ayuk J et al: Growth hormone and its disorders. Postgrad Med J. 82(963):24-30, 2006
                                  14. Bluestone R et al: Acromegalic arthropathy. Ann Rheum Dis. 30(3):243-58, 1971
                                  Related Anatomy
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                                  Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                  References
                                  Tables

                                  Tables

                                  KEY FACTS

                                  • Terminology

                                    • Imaging

                                      • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                        • Pathology

                                          • Clinical Issues

                                            TERMINOLOGY

                                            • Definitions

                                              • Acromegaly: onset of disease after physes closed
                                              • Gigantism: onset of disease before physes closed

                                            IMAGING

                                            • General Features

                                              • Imaging Recommendations

                                                • Radiography: Acromegaly

                                                  • Radiography: Hypopituitarism

                                                    • CT Findings

                                                      • MR Findings

                                                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                          PATHOLOGY

                                                          • General Features

                                                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                            • Presentation

                                                              • Demographics

                                                                • Treatment

                                                                  Selected References

                                                                  1. Tidblad A: The history, physiology and treatment safety of growth hormone. Acta Paediatr. 111(2):215-24, 2022
                                                                  2. Asa SL et al: An update on pituitary neuroendocrine tumors leading to acromegaly and gigantism. J Clin Med. 10(11), 2021
                                                                  3. Banskota S et al: Pituitary adenomas: from diagnosis to therapeutics. Biomedicines. 9(5), 2021
                                                                  4. Sisco J et al: Towards an earlier diagnosis of acromegaly and gigantism. J Clin Med. 10(7), 2021
                                                                  5. Gupta AK et al: Imaging in short stature and bone age estimation. Indian J Pediatr. 86(10):939-51, 2019
                                                                  6. Colao A et al: The effects of somatostatin analogue therapy on pituitary tumor volume in patients with acromegaly. Pituitary. 19(2):210-21, 2016
                                                                  7. Rosenbloom AL: A half-century of studies of growth hormone insensitivity/Laron syndrome: a historical perspective. Growth Horm IGF Res. 28:46-50, 2016
                                                                  8. Margusino-Framiñán L et al: Cost-effectiveness analysis of preoperative treatment of acromegaly with somatostatin analogue on surgical outcome. Eur J Intern Med. 26(9):736-41, 2015
                                                                  9. Wang CY et al: Idiopathic growth hormone deficiency in the morphologically normal pituitary gland is associated with perfusion delay. Radiology. 258(1):213-21, 2011
                                                                  10. Chanson P: [Acromegaly.] Presse Med. 38(1):92-102, 2009
                                                                  11. Kornreich L et al: Abnormalities of the axial and proximal appendicular skeleton in adults with Laron syndrome (growth hormone insensitivity). Skeletal Radiol. 37(2):153-60, 2008
                                                                  12. Miller A et al: Impact of musculoskeletal disease on quality of life in long-standing acromegaly. Eur J Endocrinol. 158(5):587-93, 2008
                                                                  13. Ayuk J et al: Growth hormone and its disorders. Postgrad Med J. 82(963):24-30, 2006
                                                                  14. Bluestone R et al: Acromegalic arthropathy. Ann Rheum Dis. 30(3):243-58, 1971