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Pituitary Hyperplasia
Anne G. Osborn, MD, FACR
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Definitions

            • Upper limit of normal pituitary height varies with age, sex
              • Pregnant/lactating females: 12 mm
              • Young menstruating females: 10 mm
              • Males, postmenopausal females: 8 mm
              • Infants, children: 6 mm
            • Nonphysiologic pituitary hyperplasia seen with
              • Longstanding untreated primary hypothyroidism
              • Addison disease, end-organ failure, some neuroendocrine neoplasms

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • CT Findings

              • MR Findings

                • Imaging Recommendations

                  DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                    PATHOLOGY

                    • General Features

                      • Microscopic Features

                        CLINICAL ISSUES

                        • Presentation

                          • Demographics

                            • Treatment

                              DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                              • Consider

                                Selected References

                                1. Du J et al: Pituitary adenoma secondary to primary hypothyroidism: two case reports. Medicine (Baltimore). 99(8):e19222, 2020
                                2. Takayasu S et al: Presence of aberrant adrenocorticotropic hormone precursors in two cases of McCune-Albright syndrome. Endocr J. 67(3):353-9, 2020
                                3. Cossu G et al: Comprehensive evaluation of rare pituitary lesions: a single tertiary care pituitary center experience and review of the literature. Endocr Pathol. 30(3):219-36, 2019
                                4. Kinoshita Y et al: Physiologic pituitary hyperplasia causing visual disturbance during adolescence. J Clin Neurosci. 61:279-81, 2019
                                5. Shivaprasad KS et al: Pituitary hyperplasia from primary hypothyroidism. N Engl J Med. 380(8):e9, 2019
                                6. Shukla P et al: Pituitary hyperplasia in severe primary hypothyroidism: a case report and review of the literature. Case Rep Endocrinol. 2019:2012546, 2019
                                7. Biswas SN et al: Physiological pituitary hyperplasia misinterpreted and treated as lymphocytic hypophysitis. BMJ Case Rep. 2018, 2018
                                8. Cao J et al: Primary hypothyroidism in a child leads to pituitary hyperplasia: a case report and literature review. Medicine (Baltimore). 97(42):e12703, 2018
                                9. Nachawi N et al: Pituitary 'pseudotumor': an under-recognised complication of undertreated primary hypothyroidism. BMJ Case Rep. 2018, 2018
                                Related Anatomy
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                                Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                References
                                Tables

                                Tables

                                KEY FACTS

                                • Terminology

                                  • Imaging

                                    • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                      • Pathology

                                        TERMINOLOGY

                                        • Definitions

                                          • Upper limit of normal pituitary height varies with age, sex
                                            • Pregnant/lactating females: 12 mm
                                            • Young menstruating females: 10 mm
                                            • Males, postmenopausal females: 8 mm
                                            • Infants, children: 6 mm
                                          • Nonphysiologic pituitary hyperplasia seen with
                                            • Longstanding untreated primary hypothyroidism
                                            • Addison disease, end-organ failure, some neuroendocrine neoplasms

                                        IMAGING

                                        • General Features

                                          • CT Findings

                                            • MR Findings

                                              • Imaging Recommendations

                                                DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                  PATHOLOGY

                                                  • General Features

                                                    • Microscopic Features

                                                      CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                      • Presentation

                                                        • Demographics

                                                          • Treatment

                                                            DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                            • Consider

                                                              Selected References

                                                              1. Du J et al: Pituitary adenoma secondary to primary hypothyroidism: two case reports. Medicine (Baltimore). 99(8):e19222, 2020
                                                              2. Takayasu S et al: Presence of aberrant adrenocorticotropic hormone precursors in two cases of McCune-Albright syndrome. Endocr J. 67(3):353-9, 2020
                                                              3. Cossu G et al: Comprehensive evaluation of rare pituitary lesions: a single tertiary care pituitary center experience and review of the literature. Endocr Pathol. 30(3):219-36, 2019
                                                              4. Kinoshita Y et al: Physiologic pituitary hyperplasia causing visual disturbance during adolescence. J Clin Neurosci. 61:279-81, 2019
                                                              5. Shivaprasad KS et al: Pituitary hyperplasia from primary hypothyroidism. N Engl J Med. 380(8):e9, 2019
                                                              6. Shukla P et al: Pituitary hyperplasia in severe primary hypothyroidism: a case report and review of the literature. Case Rep Endocrinol. 2019:2012546, 2019
                                                              7. Biswas SN et al: Physiological pituitary hyperplasia misinterpreted and treated as lymphocytic hypophysitis. BMJ Case Rep. 2018, 2018
                                                              8. Cao J et al: Primary hypothyroidism in a child leads to pituitary hyperplasia: a case report and literature review. Medicine (Baltimore). 97(42):e12703, 2018
                                                              9. Nachawi N et al: Pituitary 'pseudotumor': an under-recognised complication of undertreated primary hypothyroidism. BMJ Case Rep. 2018, 2018