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Placenta Previa/Low-Lying Placenta
Roya Sohaey, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Clinical Issues

          • Diagnostic Checklist

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Abbreviations

              • Placenta previa (PP)
              • Low-lying placenta (LLP)
              • Internal os of cervix (IO)
              • Lower uterine segment (LUS)
              • Transvaginal ultrasound (TVUS)
            • Definitions

              • PP: Placenta covers IO
              • LLP: Placenta edge is ≤ 2 cm from IO
              • Normal: Placenta edge is > 2 cm from IO
              • Previous classification with marginal and partial PP deemed confusing

            IMAGING

            • Ultrasonographic Findings

              • Imaging Recommendations

                DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                  PATHOLOGY

                  • General Features

                    • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                      CLINICAL ISSUES

                      • Presentation

                        • Demographics

                          • Natural History & Prognosis

                            • Treatment

                              DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                              • Consider

                                • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                  • Reporting Tips

                                    Selected References

                                    1. Huang S et al: Maternal and neonatal outcomes of repeated antepartum bleeding in 493 placenta previa cases: a retrospective study. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 1-6, 2021
                                    2. King LJ et al: Maternal risk factors associated with persistent placenta previa. Placenta. 99:189-92, 2020
                                    3. Durst JK et al: Resolution of a low-lying placenta and placenta previa diagnosed at the midtrimester anatomy scan. J Ultrasound Med. 37(8):2011-9, 2018
                                    4. Gibbins KJ et al: Placenta previa and maternal hemorrhagic morbidity. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 31(4):494-9, 2018
                                    5. Fan D et al: Prevalence of antepartum hemorrhage in women with placenta previa: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sci Rep. 7:40320, 2017
                                    6. Kollmann M et al: Placenta praevia: incidence, risk factors and outcome. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 29(9):1395-8, 2016
                                    7. Silver RM: Abnormal placentation: placenta previa, vasa previa, and placenta accreta. Obstet Gynecol. 126(3):654-68, 2015
                                    8. Vintzileos AM et al: Using ultrasound in the clinical management of placental implantation abnormalities. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 213(4 Suppl):S70-7, 2015
                                    9. Quant HS et al: Transabdominal ultrasonography as a screening test for second-trimester placenta previa. Obstet Gynecol. 123(3):628-33, 2014
                                    10. Räisänen S et al: Placenta previa and the risk of delivering a small-for-gestational-age newborn. Obstet Gynecol. 124(2 Pt 1):285-91, 2014
                                    11. Reddy UM et al: Fetal imaging: executive summary of a joint Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine, American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, American College of Radiology, Society for Pediatric Radiology, and Society of Radiologists in Ultrasound Fetal Imaging Workshop. J Ultrasound Med. 33(5):745-57, 2014
                                    Related Anatomy
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                                    Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                    References
                                    Tables

                                    Tables

                                    KEY FACTS

                                    • Terminology

                                      • Imaging

                                        • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                          • Clinical Issues

                                            • Diagnostic Checklist

                                              TERMINOLOGY

                                              • Abbreviations

                                                • Placenta previa (PP)
                                                • Low-lying placenta (LLP)
                                                • Internal os of cervix (IO)
                                                • Lower uterine segment (LUS)
                                                • Transvaginal ultrasound (TVUS)
                                              • Definitions

                                                • PP: Placenta covers IO
                                                • LLP: Placenta edge is ≤ 2 cm from IO
                                                • Normal: Placenta edge is > 2 cm from IO
                                                • Previous classification with marginal and partial PP deemed confusing

                                              IMAGING

                                              • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                • Imaging Recommendations

                                                  DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                    PATHOLOGY

                                                    • General Features

                                                      • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                        CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                        • Presentation

                                                          • Demographics

                                                            • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                              • Treatment

                                                                DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                • Consider

                                                                  • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                    • Reporting Tips

                                                                      Selected References

                                                                      1. Huang S et al: Maternal and neonatal outcomes of repeated antepartum bleeding in 493 placenta previa cases: a retrospective study. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 1-6, 2021
                                                                      2. King LJ et al: Maternal risk factors associated with persistent placenta previa. Placenta. 99:189-92, 2020
                                                                      3. Durst JK et al: Resolution of a low-lying placenta and placenta previa diagnosed at the midtrimester anatomy scan. J Ultrasound Med. 37(8):2011-9, 2018
                                                                      4. Gibbins KJ et al: Placenta previa and maternal hemorrhagic morbidity. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 31(4):494-9, 2018
                                                                      5. Fan D et al: Prevalence of antepartum hemorrhage in women with placenta previa: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sci Rep. 7:40320, 2017
                                                                      6. Kollmann M et al: Placenta praevia: incidence, risk factors and outcome. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 29(9):1395-8, 2016
                                                                      7. Silver RM: Abnormal placentation: placenta previa, vasa previa, and placenta accreta. Obstet Gynecol. 126(3):654-68, 2015
                                                                      8. Vintzileos AM et al: Using ultrasound in the clinical management of placental implantation abnormalities. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 213(4 Suppl):S70-7, 2015
                                                                      9. Quant HS et al: Transabdominal ultrasonography as a screening test for second-trimester placenta previa. Obstet Gynecol. 123(3):628-33, 2014
                                                                      10. Räisänen S et al: Placenta previa and the risk of delivering a small-for-gestational-age newborn. Obstet Gynecol. 124(2 Pt 1):285-91, 2014
                                                                      11. Reddy UM et al: Fetal imaging: executive summary of a joint Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine, American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, American College of Radiology, Society for Pediatric Radiology, and Society of Radiologists in Ultrasound Fetal Imaging Workshop. J Ultrasound Med. 33(5):745-57, 2014