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Placental Lake, Intervillous Thrombus
Roya Sohaey, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Clinical Issues

          • Diagnostic Checklist

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Abbreviations

              • Placental lakes (PL)
              • Intervillous thrombus (IVT)
            • Synonyms

              • Placental sonolucencies
              • Venous lakes
              • Intraparenchymal thrombus
              • Placental caverns
            • Definitions

              • PL: Avillous vascular space with blood flow
              • IVT: Avillous vascular space with thrombus or fibrin

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • Ultrasonographic Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Imaging Recommendations

                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                      PATHOLOGY

                      • General Features

                        • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                          • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                            • Presentation

                              • Demographics

                                • Natural History & Prognosis

                                  • Treatment

                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                    • Consider

                                      • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                        • Reporting Tips

                                          Selected References

                                          1. Jha P et al: Nonfetal imaging during pregnancy: placental disease. Radiol Clin North Am. 58(2):381-99, 2020
                                          2. Bukowski R et al: Altered fetal growth, placental abnormalities, and stillbirth. PLoS One. 12(8):e0182874, 2017
                                          3. Chisholm KM et al: Placental and clinical characteristics of term small-for-gestational-age neonates: a case-control study. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 19(1):37-46, 2016
                                          4. Veerbeek JH et al: Placental pathology in early intrauterine growth restriction associated with maternal hypertension. Placenta. 35(9):696-701, 2014
                                          5. Nayeri UA et al: Systematic review of sonographic findings of placental mesenchymal dysplasia and subsequent pregnancy outcome. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 41(4):366-74, 2013
                                          6. Hwang HS et al: The clinical significance of large placental lakes. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 162(2):139-43, 2012
                                          7. Kofinas A et al: The role of second trimester ultrasound in the diagnosis of placental hypoechoic lesions leading to poor pregnancy outcome. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 20(12):859-66, 2007
                                          8. Morikawa M et al: Magnetic resonance image findings of placental lake: report of two cases. Prenat Diagn. 25(3):250-2, 2005
                                          9. Reis NS et al: Placental lakes on sonographic examination: correlation with obstetric outcome and pathologic findings. J Clin Ultrasound. 33(2):67-71, 2005
                                          10. Van Horn JT et al: Histologic features of placentas and abortion specimens from women with antiphospholipid and antiphospholipid-like syndromes. Placenta. 25(7):642-8, 2004
                                          11. Thompson MO et al: Are placental lakes of any clinical significance? Placenta. 23(8-9):685-90, 2002
                                          Related Anatomy
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                                          Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                          References
                                          Tables

                                          Tables

                                          KEY FACTS

                                          • Terminology

                                            • Imaging

                                              • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                • Clinical Issues

                                                  • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                    TERMINOLOGY

                                                    • Abbreviations

                                                      • Placental lakes (PL)
                                                      • Intervillous thrombus (IVT)
                                                    • Synonyms

                                                      • Placental sonolucencies
                                                      • Venous lakes
                                                      • Intraparenchymal thrombus
                                                      • Placental caverns
                                                    • Definitions

                                                      • PL: Avillous vascular space with blood flow
                                                      • IVT: Avillous vascular space with thrombus or fibrin

                                                    IMAGING

                                                    • General Features

                                                      • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                        • MR Findings

                                                          • Imaging Recommendations

                                                            DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                              PATHOLOGY

                                                              • General Features

                                                                • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                  • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                    CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                    • Presentation

                                                                      • Demographics

                                                                        • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                          • Treatment

                                                                            DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                            • Consider

                                                                              • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                • Reporting Tips

                                                                                  Selected References

                                                                                  1. Jha P et al: Nonfetal imaging during pregnancy: placental disease. Radiol Clin North Am. 58(2):381-99, 2020
                                                                                  2. Bukowski R et al: Altered fetal growth, placental abnormalities, and stillbirth. PLoS One. 12(8):e0182874, 2017
                                                                                  3. Chisholm KM et al: Placental and clinical characteristics of term small-for-gestational-age neonates: a case-control study. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 19(1):37-46, 2016
                                                                                  4. Veerbeek JH et al: Placental pathology in early intrauterine growth restriction associated with maternal hypertension. Placenta. 35(9):696-701, 2014
                                                                                  5. Nayeri UA et al: Systematic review of sonographic findings of placental mesenchymal dysplasia and subsequent pregnancy outcome. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 41(4):366-74, 2013
                                                                                  6. Hwang HS et al: The clinical significance of large placental lakes. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 162(2):139-43, 2012
                                                                                  7. Kofinas A et al: The role of second trimester ultrasound in the diagnosis of placental hypoechoic lesions leading to poor pregnancy outcome. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 20(12):859-66, 2007
                                                                                  8. Morikawa M et al: Magnetic resonance image findings of placental lake: report of two cases. Prenat Diagn. 25(3):250-2, 2005
                                                                                  9. Reis NS et al: Placental lakes on sonographic examination: correlation with obstetric outcome and pathologic findings. J Clin Ultrasound. 33(2):67-71, 2005
                                                                                  10. Van Horn JT et al: Histologic features of placentas and abortion specimens from women with antiphospholipid and antiphospholipid-like syndromes. Placenta. 25(7):642-8, 2004
                                                                                  11. Thompson MO et al: Are placental lakes of any clinical significance? Placenta. 23(8-9):685-90, 2002