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Placental Mesenchymal Dysplasia
Anne Kennedy, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            • Diagnostic Checklist

              TERMINOLOGY

              • Abbreviations

                • Placental mesenchymal dysplasia (PMD)
              • Synonyms

                • Pseudopartial mole
              • Definitions

                • Abnormal placental development characterized by placentomegaly, stem-villous hydropic cyst formation, and abnormal villous stroma

              IMAGING

              • General Features

                • Ultrasonographic Findings

                  • MR Findings

                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                      PATHOLOGY

                      • General Features

                        • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                          • Microscopic Features

                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                            • Presentation

                              • Demographics

                                • Natural History & Prognosis

                                  • Treatment

                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                    • Consider

                                      Selected References

                                      1. Kodera C et al: Clinical manifestations of placental mesenchymal dysplasia in Japan: a multicenter case series. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 47(3):1118-25, 2021
                                      2. Guenot C et al: Placental mesenchymal dysplasia: an underdiagnosed placental pathology with various clinical outcomes. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 234:155-64, 2019
                                      3. Adams HP et al: Cystic placentomegaly on a second-trimester ultrasound. JAAPA. 31(1):36-40, 2018
                                      4. Jitsumori S et al: Placental mesenchymal dysplasia with severe fetal growth restriction in one placenta of a dichorionic diamniotic twin pregnancy. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 44(5):951-4, 2018
                                      5. Toru HS et al: We can diagnose it if we consider it. diagnostic pitfall for placenta: placental mesenchymal dysplasia. Turk Patoloji Derg. 34(1):100-3, 2018
                                      6. Marusik C et al: Diagnosis of placental mesenchymal dysplasia with magnetic resonance imaging. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 49(3):410-2, 2017
                                      7. Jha P et al: Multimodality imaging of placental masses: a pictorial review. Abdom Radiol (NY). 41(12):2435-44, 2016
                                      8. Ishikawa S et al: Prospective risk of stillbirth in women with placental mesenchymal dysplasia. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 41(10):1562-8, 2015
                                      9. Himoto Y et al: Prenatal differential diagnosis of complete hydatidiform mole with a twin live fetus and placental mesenchymal dysplasia by magnetic resonance imaging. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 40(7):1894-900, 2014
                                      10. Nayeri UA et al: Systematic review of sonographic findings of placental mesenchymal dysplasia and subsequent pregnancy outcome. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 41(4):366-74, 2013
                                      11. Ruhland B et al: Prenatal imaging and postnatal pathologic work-up in a case of fetal hepatic hamartoma and placental mesenchymal dysplasia. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 38(3):360-2, 2011
                                      12. Parveen Z et al: Placental mesenchymal dysplasia. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 131(1):131-7, 2007
                                      13. Robertson M et al: Mesenchymal dysplasia in a monochorionic diamniotic twin pregnancy with review of the differential diagnosis of cystic changes in the placenta. J Ultrasound Med. 26(5):689-93, 2007
                                      14. Pham T et al: Placental mesenchymal dysplasia is associated with high rates of intrauterine growth restriction and fetal demise: A report of 11 new cases and a review of the literature. Am J Clin Pathol. 126(1):67-78, 2006
                                      15. Ohyama M et al: Mesenchymal dysplasia of the placenta. Pathol Int. 50(9):759-64, 2000
                                      16. Jauniaux E et al: Perinatal features associated with placental mesenchymal dysplasia. Placenta. 18(8):701-6, 1997
                                      Related Anatomy
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                                      Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                      References
                                      Tables

                                      Tables

                                      KEY FACTS

                                      • Terminology

                                        • Imaging

                                          • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                            • Pathology

                                              • Clinical Issues

                                                • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                  TERMINOLOGY

                                                  • Abbreviations

                                                    • Placental mesenchymal dysplasia (PMD)
                                                  • Synonyms

                                                    • Pseudopartial mole
                                                  • Definitions

                                                    • Abnormal placental development characterized by placentomegaly, stem-villous hydropic cyst formation, and abnormal villous stroma

                                                  IMAGING

                                                  • General Features

                                                    • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                      • MR Findings

                                                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                          PATHOLOGY

                                                          • General Features

                                                            • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                              • Microscopic Features

                                                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                • Presentation

                                                                  • Demographics

                                                                    • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                      • Treatment

                                                                        DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                        • Consider

                                                                          Selected References

                                                                          1. Kodera C et al: Clinical manifestations of placental mesenchymal dysplasia in Japan: a multicenter case series. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 47(3):1118-25, 2021
                                                                          2. Guenot C et al: Placental mesenchymal dysplasia: an underdiagnosed placental pathology with various clinical outcomes. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 234:155-64, 2019
                                                                          3. Adams HP et al: Cystic placentomegaly on a second-trimester ultrasound. JAAPA. 31(1):36-40, 2018
                                                                          4. Jitsumori S et al: Placental mesenchymal dysplasia with severe fetal growth restriction in one placenta of a dichorionic diamniotic twin pregnancy. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 44(5):951-4, 2018
                                                                          5. Toru HS et al: We can diagnose it if we consider it. diagnostic pitfall for placenta: placental mesenchymal dysplasia. Turk Patoloji Derg. 34(1):100-3, 2018
                                                                          6. Marusik C et al: Diagnosis of placental mesenchymal dysplasia with magnetic resonance imaging. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 49(3):410-2, 2017
                                                                          7. Jha P et al: Multimodality imaging of placental masses: a pictorial review. Abdom Radiol (NY). 41(12):2435-44, 2016
                                                                          8. Ishikawa S et al: Prospective risk of stillbirth in women with placental mesenchymal dysplasia. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 41(10):1562-8, 2015
                                                                          9. Himoto Y et al: Prenatal differential diagnosis of complete hydatidiform mole with a twin live fetus and placental mesenchymal dysplasia by magnetic resonance imaging. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 40(7):1894-900, 2014
                                                                          10. Nayeri UA et al: Systematic review of sonographic findings of placental mesenchymal dysplasia and subsequent pregnancy outcome. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 41(4):366-74, 2013
                                                                          11. Ruhland B et al: Prenatal imaging and postnatal pathologic work-up in a case of fetal hepatic hamartoma and placental mesenchymal dysplasia. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 38(3):360-2, 2011
                                                                          12. Parveen Z et al: Placental mesenchymal dysplasia. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 131(1):131-7, 2007
                                                                          13. Robertson M et al: Mesenchymal dysplasia in a monochorionic diamniotic twin pregnancy with review of the differential diagnosis of cystic changes in the placenta. J Ultrasound Med. 26(5):689-93, 2007
                                                                          14. Pham T et al: Placental mesenchymal dysplasia is associated with high rates of intrauterine growth restriction and fetal demise: A report of 11 new cases and a review of the literature. Am J Clin Pathol. 126(1):67-78, 2006
                                                                          15. Ohyama M et al: Mesenchymal dysplasia of the placenta. Pathol Int. 50(9):759-64, 2000
                                                                          16. Jauniaux E et al: Perinatal features associated with placental mesenchymal dysplasia. Placenta. 18(8):701-6, 1997