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Plantaris Tendon Injury
Kirkland W. Davis, MD, FACR; Andrew Sonin, MD, FACR
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Synonyms

              • Tennis leg
            • Definitions

              • Partial or complete tear of plantaris myotendinous unit, usually around myotendinous junction

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • MR Findings

                • Ultrasonographic Findings

                  • Imaging Recommendations

                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                      PATHOLOGY

                      • General Features

                        • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                          CLINICAL ISSUES

                          • Presentation

                            • Demographics

                              • Natural History & Prognosis

                                • Treatment

                                  DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                  • Consider

                                    • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                      Selected References

                                      1. Zdziarski LA et al: It is NOT the gastrocnemius, soleus, or Achilles….What could it be? A plantaris muscle injury. Curr Sports Med Rep. 14(2):84-5, 2015
                                      2. Fields KB: Running injuries - changing trends and demographics. Curr Sports Med Rep. 10(5):299-303, 2011
                                      3. Lopez GJ et al: Plantaris rupture: a mimic of deep venous thrombosis. J Emerg Med. 40(2):e27-30, 2011
                                      4. Russell AS et al: Tennis leg--a new variant of an old syndrome. Clin Rheumatol. 30(6):855-7, 2011
                                      5. Boer R et al: Neglected Achilles tendon rupture with central insertional plantaris tendon hypertrophy: two cases. Strategies Trauma Limb Reconstr. 4(1):41-3, 2009
                                      6. Campbell JT: Posterior calf injury. Foot Ankle Clin. 14(4):761-71, 2009
                                      7. Das S: Plantaris tendon: cadaveric study with clinical implications. Surg Radiol Anat. 31(1):73-4, 2009
                                      8. Hohendorff B et al: Treatment of acute Achilles tendon rupture: fibrin glue versus fibrin glue augmented with the plantaris longus tendon. J Foot Ankle Surg. 48(4):439-46, 2009
                                      9. Lui TH: Endoscopic-assisted Achilles tendon repair with plantaris tendon augmentation. Arthroscopy. 23(5):556, 2007
                                      10. Harmon KJ et al: Isolated rupture of the plantaris tendon in a high school track athlete. Clin J Sport Med. 16(4):361-3, 2006
                                      11. Mozena J et al: Plantaris tendon ruptures. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 94(5):505-8, 2004
                                      12. Delgado GJ et al: Tennis leg: Clinical US study of 141 patients and anatomic investigation of four cadavers with MR imaging and US. Radiology 224(1):112-9, 2002
                                      13. Taras JS et al: Compartment syndrome of the leg after plantaris tendon harvest: a case report. J Hand Surg Am. 26(6):1135-7, 2001
                                      14. Saxena A et al: Magnetic resonance and cadaveric findings of the incidence of plantaris tendon. Foot Ankle Int. 21(7):570-2, 2000
                                      15. Leekam RN et al: Using sonography to diagnose injury of plantaris muscles and tendons. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 172(1):185-9, 1999
                                      16. Helms CA et al: Plantaris muscle injury: evaluation with MR imaging. Radiology. 195(1):201-3, 1995
                                      17. Allard JC et al: Imaging of plantaris muscle rupture. Clin Imaging. 16(1):55-8, 1992
                                      18. Mackay IR et al: Imaging the plantaris tendon with ultrasound. Br J Plast Surg. 43(6):689-91, 1990
                                      Related Anatomy
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                                      Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                      References
                                      Tables

                                      Tables

                                      KEY FACTS

                                      • Terminology

                                        • Imaging

                                          • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                            • Pathology

                                              • Clinical Issues

                                                TERMINOLOGY

                                                • Synonyms

                                                  • Tennis leg
                                                • Definitions

                                                  • Partial or complete tear of plantaris myotendinous unit, usually around myotendinous junction

                                                IMAGING

                                                • General Features

                                                  • MR Findings

                                                    • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                      • Imaging Recommendations

                                                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                          PATHOLOGY

                                                          • General Features

                                                            • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                              • Presentation

                                                                • Demographics

                                                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                    • Treatment

                                                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                      • Consider

                                                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                          Selected References

                                                                          1. Zdziarski LA et al: It is NOT the gastrocnemius, soleus, or Achilles….What could it be? A plantaris muscle injury. Curr Sports Med Rep. 14(2):84-5, 2015
                                                                          2. Fields KB: Running injuries - changing trends and demographics. Curr Sports Med Rep. 10(5):299-303, 2011
                                                                          3. Lopez GJ et al: Plantaris rupture: a mimic of deep venous thrombosis. J Emerg Med. 40(2):e27-30, 2011
                                                                          4. Russell AS et al: Tennis leg--a new variant of an old syndrome. Clin Rheumatol. 30(6):855-7, 2011
                                                                          5. Boer R et al: Neglected Achilles tendon rupture with central insertional plantaris tendon hypertrophy: two cases. Strategies Trauma Limb Reconstr. 4(1):41-3, 2009
                                                                          6. Campbell JT: Posterior calf injury. Foot Ankle Clin. 14(4):761-71, 2009
                                                                          7. Das S: Plantaris tendon: cadaveric study with clinical implications. Surg Radiol Anat. 31(1):73-4, 2009
                                                                          8. Hohendorff B et al: Treatment of acute Achilles tendon rupture: fibrin glue versus fibrin glue augmented with the plantaris longus tendon. J Foot Ankle Surg. 48(4):439-46, 2009
                                                                          9. Lui TH: Endoscopic-assisted Achilles tendon repair with plantaris tendon augmentation. Arthroscopy. 23(5):556, 2007
                                                                          10. Harmon KJ et al: Isolated rupture of the plantaris tendon in a high school track athlete. Clin J Sport Med. 16(4):361-3, 2006
                                                                          11. Mozena J et al: Plantaris tendon ruptures. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 94(5):505-8, 2004
                                                                          12. Delgado GJ et al: Tennis leg: Clinical US study of 141 patients and anatomic investigation of four cadavers with MR imaging and US. Radiology 224(1):112-9, 2002
                                                                          13. Taras JS et al: Compartment syndrome of the leg after plantaris tendon harvest: a case report. J Hand Surg Am. 26(6):1135-7, 2001
                                                                          14. Saxena A et al: Magnetic resonance and cadaveric findings of the incidence of plantaris tendon. Foot Ankle Int. 21(7):570-2, 2000
                                                                          15. Leekam RN et al: Using sonography to diagnose injury of plantaris muscles and tendons. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 172(1):185-9, 1999
                                                                          16. Helms CA et al: Plantaris muscle injury: evaluation with MR imaging. Radiology. 195(1):201-3, 1995
                                                                          17. Allard JC et al: Imaging of plantaris muscle rupture. Clin Imaging. 16(1):55-8, 1992
                                                                          18. Mackay IR et al: Imaging the plantaris tendon with ultrasound. Br J Plast Surg. 43(6):689-91, 1990