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Plates and Screws
Lubdha M. Shah, MD; Jeffrey S. Ross, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Clinical Issues

        • Diagnostic Checklist

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Synonyms

            • Spine instrumentation, spine fusion surgery
          • Definitions

            • Instrumentation in fusion surgery designed to stabilize, not replace spinal bony elements
              • Intact osseous fusion is crucial

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • Radiographic Findings

              • CT Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Imaging Recommendations

                    PATHOLOGY

                    • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                      CLINICAL ISSUES

                      • Presentation

                        • Natural History & Prognosis

                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                          • Image Interpretation Pearls

                            Selected References

                            1. Yuan C et al: Unilateral versus bilateral pedicle screw fixation in lumbar interbody fusion: a meta-analysis of complication and fusion rate. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 117:28-32, 2014
                            2. Yoshihara H et al: Screw-related complications in the subaxial cervical spine with the use of lateral mass versus cervical pedicle screws: a systematic review. J Neurosurg Spine. 19(5):614-23, 2013
                            3. Kaiser MG et al: Radiographic assessment of cervical subaxial fusion. J Neurosurg Spine. 11(2):221-7, 2009
                            4. Schleicher P et al: Biomechanical comparison of two different concepts for stand alone anterior lumbar interbody fusion. Eur Spine J. 17(12):1757-65, 2008
                            5. Cain CM et al: A new stand-alone anterior lumbar interbody fusion device: biomechanical comparison with established fixation techniques. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 30(23):2631-6, 2005
                            6. Deyo RA et al: Spinal-fusion surgery - the case for restraint. N Engl J Med. 350(7):722-6, 2004
                            7. Ratliff JK et al: Cervical laminoplasty: a critical review. J Neurosurg. 98(3 Suppl):230-8, 2003
                            8. Goffin J et al: Preliminary clinical experience with the Bryan Cervical Disc Prosthesis. Neurosurgery. 51(3):840-5; discussion 845-7, 2002
                            9. Wang JC et al: Increased fusion rates with cervical plating for three-level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 26(6):643-6; discussion 646-7, 2001
                            10. Emery SE et al: Three-level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion: radiographic and clinical results. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 22(22):2622-4; discussion 2625, 1997
                            11. Brodsky AE et al: Correlation of radiologic assessment of lumbar spine fusions with surgical exploration. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 16(6 Suppl):S261-5, 1991
                            12. Gore DR et al: Anterior cervical fusion for degenerated or protruded discs. A review of one hundred forty-six patients. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 9(7):667-71, 1984
                            Related Anatomy
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                            Related Differential Diagnoses
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                            References
                            Tables

                            Tables

                            KEY FACTS

                            • Terminology

                              • Imaging

                                • Clinical Issues

                                  • Diagnostic Checklist

                                    TERMINOLOGY

                                    • Synonyms

                                      • Spine instrumentation, spine fusion surgery
                                    • Definitions

                                      • Instrumentation in fusion surgery designed to stabilize, not replace spinal bony elements
                                        • Intact osseous fusion is crucial

                                    IMAGING

                                    • General Features

                                      • Radiographic Findings

                                        • CT Findings

                                          • MR Findings

                                            • Imaging Recommendations

                                              PATHOLOGY

                                              • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                • Presentation

                                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                    • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                      Selected References

                                                      1. Yuan C et al: Unilateral versus bilateral pedicle screw fixation in lumbar interbody fusion: a meta-analysis of complication and fusion rate. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 117:28-32, 2014
                                                      2. Yoshihara H et al: Screw-related complications in the subaxial cervical spine with the use of lateral mass versus cervical pedicle screws: a systematic review. J Neurosurg Spine. 19(5):614-23, 2013
                                                      3. Kaiser MG et al: Radiographic assessment of cervical subaxial fusion. J Neurosurg Spine. 11(2):221-7, 2009
                                                      4. Schleicher P et al: Biomechanical comparison of two different concepts for stand alone anterior lumbar interbody fusion. Eur Spine J. 17(12):1757-65, 2008
                                                      5. Cain CM et al: A new stand-alone anterior lumbar interbody fusion device: biomechanical comparison with established fixation techniques. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 30(23):2631-6, 2005
                                                      6. Deyo RA et al: Spinal-fusion surgery - the case for restraint. N Engl J Med. 350(7):722-6, 2004
                                                      7. Ratliff JK et al: Cervical laminoplasty: a critical review. J Neurosurg. 98(3 Suppl):230-8, 2003
                                                      8. Goffin J et al: Preliminary clinical experience with the Bryan Cervical Disc Prosthesis. Neurosurgery. 51(3):840-5; discussion 845-7, 2002
                                                      9. Wang JC et al: Increased fusion rates with cervical plating for three-level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 26(6):643-6; discussion 646-7, 2001
                                                      10. Emery SE et al: Three-level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion: radiographic and clinical results. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 22(22):2622-4; discussion 2625, 1997
                                                      11. Brodsky AE et al: Correlation of radiologic assessment of lumbar spine fusions with surgical exploration. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 16(6 Suppl):S261-5, 1991
                                                      12. Gore DR et al: Anterior cervical fusion for degenerated or protruded discs. A review of one hundred forty-six patients. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 9(7):667-71, 1984