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Pleural Effusion
Roya Sohaey, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Synonyms

              • Pleural fluid
            • Definitions

              • Primary pleural effusion
                • Lymphatic leakage into pleural space
                  • Hydrothorax antenatally
                  • Chylothorax postnatally
                • Primary pleural effusion is diagnosis of exclusion
              • Secondary pleural effusion
                • Hydrops
                • Fetal anomaly

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • Ultrasonographic Findings

                • Imaging Recommendations

                  DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                    PATHOLOGY

                    • General Features

                      • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                        CLINICAL ISSUES

                        • Presentation

                          • Demographics

                            • Natural History & Prognosis

                              • Treatment

                                DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                • Consider

                                  • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                    Selected References

                                    1. Yinon Y et al: Fetal pleural effusions. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 22(1):77-96, 2008
                                    2. Rustico MA et al: Fetal pleural effusion. Prenat Diagn. 27(9):793-9, 2007
                                    3. Chen CP: Fetal therapy and cytogenetic testing: prenatal detection of chromosome aberration during thoracocentesis for congenital chylothorax by karyotyping from pleural effusion fluid and review of the literature. Genet Couns. 16(3):301-5, 2005
                                    4. Wilson RD et al: Thoracoamniotic shunts: fetal treatment of pleural effusions and congenital cystic adenomatoid malformations. Fetal Diagn Ther. 19(5):413-20, 2004
                                    5. Hashimoto K et al: Pregnancy outcome of embryonic/fetal pleural effusion in the first trimester. J Ultrasound Med. 22(5):501-5, 2003
                                    6. Medina O et al: First-trimester diagnosis of pleural effusion. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 19(4):423-4, 2002
                                    7. Prontera W et al: Ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) of severe fetal hydrothorax. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 86(1):F58-60, 2002
                                    8. Aubard Y et al: Primary fetal hydrothorax: A literature review and proposed antenatal clinical strategy. Fetal Diagn Ther. 13(6):325-33, 1998
                                    9. Jauniaux E: Diagnosis and management of early non-immune hydrops fetalis. Prenat Diagn. 17(13):1261-8, 1997
                                    10. Ahmad FK et al: Isolated unilateral fetal pleural effusion: the role of sonographic surveillance and in utero therapy. Fetal Diagn Ther. 11(6):383-9, 1996
                                    11. Sohaey R et al: The fetal thorax: noncardiac chest anomalies. Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 17(1):34-50, 1996
                                    12. Hagay Z et al: Isolated fetal pleural effusion: a prenatal management dilemma. Obstet Gynecol. 81(1):147-52, 1993
                                    Related Anatomy
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                                    Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                    References
                                    Tables

                                    Tables

                                    KEY FACTS

                                    • Terminology

                                      • Imaging

                                        • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                          • Pathology

                                            • Clinical Issues

                                              TERMINOLOGY

                                              • Synonyms

                                                • Pleural fluid
                                              • Definitions

                                                • Primary pleural effusion
                                                  • Lymphatic leakage into pleural space
                                                    • Hydrothorax antenatally
                                                    • Chylothorax postnatally
                                                  • Primary pleural effusion is diagnosis of exclusion
                                                • Secondary pleural effusion
                                                  • Hydrops
                                                  • Fetal anomaly

                                              IMAGING

                                              • General Features

                                                • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                  • Imaging Recommendations

                                                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                      PATHOLOGY

                                                      • General Features

                                                        • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                          CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                          • Presentation

                                                            • Demographics

                                                              • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                • Treatment

                                                                  DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                  • Consider

                                                                    • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                      Selected References

                                                                      1. Yinon Y et al: Fetal pleural effusions. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 22(1):77-96, 2008
                                                                      2. Rustico MA et al: Fetal pleural effusion. Prenat Diagn. 27(9):793-9, 2007
                                                                      3. Chen CP: Fetal therapy and cytogenetic testing: prenatal detection of chromosome aberration during thoracocentesis for congenital chylothorax by karyotyping from pleural effusion fluid and review of the literature. Genet Couns. 16(3):301-5, 2005
                                                                      4. Wilson RD et al: Thoracoamniotic shunts: fetal treatment of pleural effusions and congenital cystic adenomatoid malformations. Fetal Diagn Ther. 19(5):413-20, 2004
                                                                      5. Hashimoto K et al: Pregnancy outcome of embryonic/fetal pleural effusion in the first trimester. J Ultrasound Med. 22(5):501-5, 2003
                                                                      6. Medina O et al: First-trimester diagnosis of pleural effusion. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 19(4):423-4, 2002
                                                                      7. Prontera W et al: Ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) of severe fetal hydrothorax. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 86(1):F58-60, 2002
                                                                      8. Aubard Y et al: Primary fetal hydrothorax: A literature review and proposed antenatal clinical strategy. Fetal Diagn Ther. 13(6):325-33, 1998
                                                                      9. Jauniaux E: Diagnosis and management of early non-immune hydrops fetalis. Prenat Diagn. 17(13):1261-8, 1997
                                                                      10. Ahmad FK et al: Isolated unilateral fetal pleural effusion: the role of sonographic surveillance and in utero therapy. Fetal Diagn Ther. 11(6):383-9, 1996
                                                                      11. Sohaey R et al: The fetal thorax: noncardiac chest anomalies. Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 17(1):34-50, 1996
                                                                      12. Hagay Z et al: Isolated fetal pleural effusion: a prenatal management dilemma. Obstet Gynecol. 81(1):147-52, 1993