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Pneumocephalus
Surjith Vattoth, MD, FRCR; Anne G. Osborn, MD, FACR
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            • Diagnostic Checklist

              TERMINOLOGY

              • Synonyms

                • Pneumatocele (when focal)
              • Definitions

                • Presence of air or gas within skull (always abnormal)

              IMAGING

              • General Features

                • CT Findings

                  • MR Findings

                    • Imaging Recommendations

                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        PATHOLOGY

                        • General Features

                          • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                            • Presentation

                              • Demographics

                                • Natural History & Prognosis

                                  • Treatment

                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                    • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                      Selected References

                                      1. Ocal O et al: Intra-aneurysmal air after flow diversion treatment in intracranial aneurysms: incidence, characteristics and clinical significance. Jpn J Radiol. 37(7):549-54, 2019
                                      2. Fuhs AK et al: Death resulting from pneumocephalus complicating endoscopic food bolus retrieval in a patient with eosinophilic esophagitis. Acad Forensic Pathol. 6(4):703-8, 2016
                                      3. Mishra R et al: Fatal cerebral air embolism: a case series and literature review. Case Rep Crit Care. 2016:3425321, 2016
                                      4. Youngblood SC et al: Pneumocephalus resulting from basilar skull fracture. Anesthesiology. 122(5):1152, 2015
                                      5. Pulickal GG et al: Tension pneumocephalus. Singapore Med J. 55(3):e46-8, 2014
                                      6. Lütjens G et al: Akinetic mutism and parkinsonism due to subdural and intraventricular tension pneumocephalus. J Neurol Surg A Cent Eur Neurosurg. 74 Suppl 1:e116-8, 2013
                                      7. Sweni S et al: Tension pneumocephalus: a case report with review of literature. Emerg Radiol. 20(6):573-8, 2013
                                      8. Oh JH et al: Spontaneous pneumocephalus. Emerg Med J. 27(3):220, 2010
                                      9. Sinclair AG et al: Imaging of the post-operative cranium. Radiographics. 30(2):461-82, 2010
                                      10. Michel SJ: The Mount Fuji sign. Radiology. 232(2):449-50, 2004
                                      Related Anatomy
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                                      Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                      References
                                      Tables

                                      Tables

                                      KEY FACTS

                                      • Terminology

                                        • Imaging

                                          • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                            • Pathology

                                              • Clinical Issues

                                                • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                  TERMINOLOGY

                                                  • Synonyms

                                                    • Pneumatocele (when focal)
                                                  • Definitions

                                                    • Presence of air or gas within skull (always abnormal)

                                                  IMAGING

                                                  • General Features

                                                    • CT Findings

                                                      • MR Findings

                                                        • Imaging Recommendations

                                                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                            PATHOLOGY

                                                            • General Features

                                                              • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                • Presentation

                                                                  • Demographics

                                                                    • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                      • Treatment

                                                                        DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                          Selected References

                                                                          1. Ocal O et al: Intra-aneurysmal air after flow diversion treatment in intracranial aneurysms: incidence, characteristics and clinical significance. Jpn J Radiol. 37(7):549-54, 2019
                                                                          2. Fuhs AK et al: Death resulting from pneumocephalus complicating endoscopic food bolus retrieval in a patient with eosinophilic esophagitis. Acad Forensic Pathol. 6(4):703-8, 2016
                                                                          3. Mishra R et al: Fatal cerebral air embolism: a case series and literature review. Case Rep Crit Care. 2016:3425321, 2016
                                                                          4. Youngblood SC et al: Pneumocephalus resulting from basilar skull fracture. Anesthesiology. 122(5):1152, 2015
                                                                          5. Pulickal GG et al: Tension pneumocephalus. Singapore Med J. 55(3):e46-8, 2014
                                                                          6. Lütjens G et al: Akinetic mutism and parkinsonism due to subdural and intraventricular tension pneumocephalus. J Neurol Surg A Cent Eur Neurosurg. 74 Suppl 1:e116-8, 2013
                                                                          7. Sweni S et al: Tension pneumocephalus: a case report with review of literature. Emerg Radiol. 20(6):573-8, 2013
                                                                          8. Oh JH et al: Spontaneous pneumocephalus. Emerg Med J. 27(3):220, 2010
                                                                          9. Sinclair AG et al: Imaging of the post-operative cranium. Radiographics. 30(2):461-82, 2010
                                                                          10. Michel SJ: The Mount Fuji sign. Radiology. 232(2):449-50, 2004