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Pneumomediastinum
Michael R. Aquino, MD, MHSc
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KEY FACTS

  • Imaging

    • Pathology

      • Clinical Issues

        TERMINOLOGY

        • Synonyms

          • Mediastinal emphysema
        • Definitions

          • Pneumomediastinum (PM): Extraluminal mediastinal gas

        IMAGING

        • General Features

          • Radiographic Findings

            • Fluoroscopic Findings

              • CT Findings

                • Imaging Recommendations

                  DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                    PATHOLOGY

                    • General Features

                      CLINICAL ISSUES

                      • Presentation

                        • Demographics

                          • Natural History & Prognosis

                            • Treatment

                              DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                              • Consider

                                • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                  Selected References

                                  1. Abbas PI et al: Spontaneous pneumomediastinum in the pediatric patient. Am J Surg. 210(6):1031-6, 2015
                                  2. Chouliaras K et al: Pneumomediastinum following blunt trauma: Worth an exhaustive workup? J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 79(2):188-92; discussion 192-3, 2015
                                  3. Fitzwater JW et al: Management of spontaneous pneumomediastinum in children. J Pediatr Surg. 50(6):983-6, 2015
                                  4. Bakhos CT et al: Spontaneous pneumomediastinum: an extensive workup is not required. J Am Coll Surg. 219(4):713-7, 2014
                                  5. Pryor SD et al: Clinical outcomes and diagnostic imaging of pediatric patients with pneumomediastinum secondary to blunt trauma to the chest. J Trauma. 71(4):904-8, 2011
                                  6. Lee CY et al: Etiologies of spontaneous pneumomediastinum in children of different ages. Pediatr Neonatol. 50(5):190-5, 2009
                                  7. Neal MD et al: Presence of pneumomediastinum after blunt trauma in children: what does it really mean? J Pediatr Surg. 44(7):1322-7, 2009
                                  8. Damore DT et al: Medical causes of pneumomediastinum in children. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 40(2):87-91, 2001
                                  9. Bejvan SM et al: Pneumomediastinum: old signs and new signs. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 166(5):1041-8, 1996
                                  10. Bowen A 3rd et al: Infraazygous pneumomediastinum in the newborn. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 135(5):1017-21, 1980
                                  Related Anatomy
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                                  Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                  References
                                  Tables

                                  Tables

                                  KEY FACTS

                                  • Imaging

                                    • Pathology

                                      • Clinical Issues

                                        TERMINOLOGY

                                        • Synonyms

                                          • Mediastinal emphysema
                                        • Definitions

                                          • Pneumomediastinum (PM): Extraluminal mediastinal gas

                                        IMAGING

                                        • General Features

                                          • Radiographic Findings

                                            • Fluoroscopic Findings

                                              • CT Findings

                                                • Imaging Recommendations

                                                  DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                    PATHOLOGY

                                                    • General Features

                                                      CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                      • Presentation

                                                        • Demographics

                                                          • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                            • Treatment

                                                              DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                              • Consider

                                                                • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                  Selected References

                                                                  1. Abbas PI et al: Spontaneous pneumomediastinum in the pediatric patient. Am J Surg. 210(6):1031-6, 2015
                                                                  2. Chouliaras K et al: Pneumomediastinum following blunt trauma: Worth an exhaustive workup? J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 79(2):188-92; discussion 192-3, 2015
                                                                  3. Fitzwater JW et al: Management of spontaneous pneumomediastinum in children. J Pediatr Surg. 50(6):983-6, 2015
                                                                  4. Bakhos CT et al: Spontaneous pneumomediastinum: an extensive workup is not required. J Am Coll Surg. 219(4):713-7, 2014
                                                                  5. Pryor SD et al: Clinical outcomes and diagnostic imaging of pediatric patients with pneumomediastinum secondary to blunt trauma to the chest. J Trauma. 71(4):904-8, 2011
                                                                  6. Lee CY et al: Etiologies of spontaneous pneumomediastinum in children of different ages. Pediatr Neonatol. 50(5):190-5, 2009
                                                                  7. Neal MD et al: Presence of pneumomediastinum after blunt trauma in children: what does it really mean? J Pediatr Surg. 44(7):1322-7, 2009
                                                                  8. Damore DT et al: Medical causes of pneumomediastinum in children. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 40(2):87-91, 2001
                                                                  9. Bejvan SM et al: Pneumomediastinum: old signs and new signs. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 166(5):1041-8, 1996
                                                                  10. Bowen A 3rd et al: Infraazygous pneumomediastinum in the newborn. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 135(5):1017-21, 1980