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Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
Maryam Rezvani, MD; Refky Nicola, MS, DO
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Abbreviations

              • Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)
            • Synonyms

              • Stein-Leventhal syndrome
            • Definitions

              • Polycystic ovarian morphology (PCOM) with clinical and endocrinologic dysfunction
              • Must exclude other etiologies of hyperandrogenism and menstrual disturbances

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • CT Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Ultrasonographic Findings

                    • Imaging Recommendations

                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        PATHOLOGY

                        • General Features

                          • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                            • Microscopic Features

                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                              • Presentation

                                • Demographics

                                  • Treatment

                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                    • Consider

                                      • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                        • Reporting Tips

                                          Selected References

                                          1. Badeeb A et al: Dark cortical rim: an MRI feature of polycystic ovarian syndrome. Abdom Radiol (NY). 46(3):1148-56, 2020
                                          2. Fondin M et al: Polycystic ovary syndrome in adolescents: which MR imaging-based diagnostic criteria? Radiology. 285(3):961-70, 2017
                                          3. Kenigsberg LE et al: Clinical utility of magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography for diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome in adolescent girls. Fertil Steril. 104(5):1302-9.e1-4, 2015
                                          4. Dewailly D et al: Definition and significance of polycystic ovarian morphology: a task force report from the Androgen Excess and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Society. Hum Reprod Update. 20(3):334-52, 2014
                                          5. Lujan ME et al: Updated ultrasound criteria for polycystic ovary syndrome: reliable thresholds for elevated follicle population and ovarian volume. Hum Reprod. 28(5):1361-8, 2013
                                          6. Battaglia C et al: Two- and three-dimensional sonographic and color Doppler techniques for diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome. The stromal/ovarian volume ratio as a new diagnostic criterion. J Ultrasound Med. 31(7):1015-24, 2012
                                          7. Lee TT et al: Polycystic ovarian syndrome: role of imaging in diagnosis. Radiographics. 32(6):1643-57, 2012
                                          8. Dewailly D et al: Diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): revisiting the threshold values of follicle count on ultrasound and of the serum AMH level for the definition of polycystic ovaries. Hum Reprod. 26(11):3123-9, 2011
                                          9. Barber TM et al: Patterns of ovarian morphology in polycystic ovary syndrome: a study utilising magnetic resonance imaging. Eur Radiol. 20(5):1207-13, 2010
                                          10. Griffin Y et al: Radiology of benign disorders of menstruation. Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 31(5):414-32, 2010
                                          11. Shanbhogue AK et al: Clinical syndromes associated with ovarian neoplasms: a comprehensive review. Radiographics. 30(4):903-19, 2010
                                          12. Peri N et al: Sonographic evaluation of the endometrium in patients with a history or an appearance of polycystic ovarian syndrome. J Ultrasound Med. 26(1):55-8; quiz 59-60, 2007
                                          13. Trivax B et al: Diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 50(1):168-77, 2007
                                          14. Chang RJ: A practical approach to the diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 191(3):713-7, 2004
                                          15. Erdem CZ et al: Polycystic ovary syndrome: dynamic contrast-enhanced ovary MR imaging. Eur J Radiol. 51(1):48-53, 2004
                                          16. Phy J et al: Transvaginal ultrasound detection of multifollicular ovaries in non-hirsute ovulatory women. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 23(2):183-7, 2004
                                          17. The Rotterdam ESHRE/ASRM-Sponsored PCOS consensus workshop group: Revised 2003 consensus on diagnostic criteria and long-term health risks related to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Hum Reprod. 19(1):41-7, 2004
                                          18. Balen AH et al: Ultrasound assessment of the polycystic ovary: international consensus definitions. Hum Reprod Update. 9(6):505-14, 2003
                                          19. Dolz M et al: Polycystic ovarian syndrome: assessment with color Doppler angiography and three-dimensional ultrasonography. J Ultrasound Med. 18(4):303-13, 1999
                                          20. Sutton CL et al: Ovarian masses revisited: radiologic and pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 12(5):853-77, 1992
                                          21. Mitchell DG et al: Polycystic ovaries: MR imaging. Radiology. 160(2):425-9, 1986
                                          Related Anatomy
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                                          Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                          References
                                          Tables

                                          Tables

                                          KEY FACTS

                                          • Terminology

                                            • Imaging

                                              • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                • Pathology

                                                  • Clinical Issues

                                                    TERMINOLOGY

                                                    • Abbreviations

                                                      • Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)
                                                    • Synonyms

                                                      • Stein-Leventhal syndrome
                                                    • Definitions

                                                      • Polycystic ovarian morphology (PCOM) with clinical and endocrinologic dysfunction
                                                      • Must exclude other etiologies of hyperandrogenism and menstrual disturbances

                                                    IMAGING

                                                    • General Features

                                                      • CT Findings

                                                        • MR Findings

                                                          • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                            • Imaging Recommendations

                                                              DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                PATHOLOGY

                                                                • General Features

                                                                  • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                    • Microscopic Features

                                                                      CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                      • Presentation

                                                                        • Demographics

                                                                          • Treatment

                                                                            DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                            • Consider

                                                                              • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                • Reporting Tips

                                                                                  Selected References

                                                                                  1. Badeeb A et al: Dark cortical rim: an MRI feature of polycystic ovarian syndrome. Abdom Radiol (NY). 46(3):1148-56, 2020
                                                                                  2. Fondin M et al: Polycystic ovary syndrome in adolescents: which MR imaging-based diagnostic criteria? Radiology. 285(3):961-70, 2017
                                                                                  3. Kenigsberg LE et al: Clinical utility of magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography for diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome in adolescent girls. Fertil Steril. 104(5):1302-9.e1-4, 2015
                                                                                  4. Dewailly D et al: Definition and significance of polycystic ovarian morphology: a task force report from the Androgen Excess and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Society. Hum Reprod Update. 20(3):334-52, 2014
                                                                                  5. Lujan ME et al: Updated ultrasound criteria for polycystic ovary syndrome: reliable thresholds for elevated follicle population and ovarian volume. Hum Reprod. 28(5):1361-8, 2013
                                                                                  6. Battaglia C et al: Two- and three-dimensional sonographic and color Doppler techniques for diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome. The stromal/ovarian volume ratio as a new diagnostic criterion. J Ultrasound Med. 31(7):1015-24, 2012
                                                                                  7. Lee TT et al: Polycystic ovarian syndrome: role of imaging in diagnosis. Radiographics. 32(6):1643-57, 2012
                                                                                  8. Dewailly D et al: Diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): revisiting the threshold values of follicle count on ultrasound and of the serum AMH level for the definition of polycystic ovaries. Hum Reprod. 26(11):3123-9, 2011
                                                                                  9. Barber TM et al: Patterns of ovarian morphology in polycystic ovary syndrome: a study utilising magnetic resonance imaging. Eur Radiol. 20(5):1207-13, 2010
                                                                                  10. Griffin Y et al: Radiology of benign disorders of menstruation. Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 31(5):414-32, 2010
                                                                                  11. Shanbhogue AK et al: Clinical syndromes associated with ovarian neoplasms: a comprehensive review. Radiographics. 30(4):903-19, 2010
                                                                                  12. Peri N et al: Sonographic evaluation of the endometrium in patients with a history or an appearance of polycystic ovarian syndrome. J Ultrasound Med. 26(1):55-8; quiz 59-60, 2007
                                                                                  13. Trivax B et al: Diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 50(1):168-77, 2007
                                                                                  14. Chang RJ: A practical approach to the diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 191(3):713-7, 2004
                                                                                  15. Erdem CZ et al: Polycystic ovary syndrome: dynamic contrast-enhanced ovary MR imaging. Eur J Radiol. 51(1):48-53, 2004
                                                                                  16. Phy J et al: Transvaginal ultrasound detection of multifollicular ovaries in non-hirsute ovulatory women. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 23(2):183-7, 2004
                                                                                  17. The Rotterdam ESHRE/ASRM-Sponsored PCOS consensus workshop group: Revised 2003 consensus on diagnostic criteria and long-term health risks related to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Hum Reprod. 19(1):41-7, 2004
                                                                                  18. Balen AH et al: Ultrasound assessment of the polycystic ovary: international consensus definitions. Hum Reprod Update. 9(6):505-14, 2003
                                                                                  19. Dolz M et al: Polycystic ovarian syndrome: assessment with color Doppler angiography and three-dimensional ultrasonography. J Ultrasound Med. 18(4):303-13, 1999
                                                                                  20. Sutton CL et al: Ovarian masses revisited: radiologic and pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 12(5):853-77, 1992
                                                                                  21. Mitchell DG et al: Polycystic ovaries: MR imaging. Radiology. 160(2):425-9, 1986