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Porencephalic Cyst
Luke L. Linscott, MD; Anne G. Osborn, MD, FACR
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            • Diagnostic Checklist

              TERMINOLOGY

              • Synonyms

                • Porencephaly
              • Definitions

                • Various definitions of porencephaly
                  • Congenital/acquired CSF-filled cavity that usually communicates with ventricular system
                    • Deep, unilateral/bilateral cavities or excavations
                    • Lined by reactive gliosis/astrocytic proliferation
                  • Presence of cysts/cavities in brain parenchyma
                    • Communicating by "pore" with arachnoid space
                  • Cavities arising in fetal life or early infancy
                    • Brain destruction (e.g., hemorrhagic venous infarct) in early intrauterine development or postnatal injury of prematurity
                    • Frequently communicate with subarachnoid space &/or lateral ventricles

              IMAGING

              • General Features

                • CT Findings

                  • MR Findings

                    • Ultrasonographic Findings

                      • Nonvascular Interventions

                        • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                          • Imaging Recommendations

                            DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                              PATHOLOGY

                              • General Features

                                • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                  • Microscopic Features

                                    CLINICAL ISSUES

                                    • Presentation

                                      • Demographics

                                        • Natural History & Prognosis

                                          • Treatment

                                            DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                            • Consider

                                              • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                Selected References

                                                1. Ha TT et al: A mutation in COL4A2 causes autosomal dominant porencephaly with cataracts. Am J Med Genet A. 170A(4):1059-63, 2016
                                                2. Hino-Fukuyo N et al: Neuroepidemiology of porencephaly, schizencephaly, and hydranencephaly in Miyagi Prefecture, Japan. Pediatr Neurol. 54:39-42.e1, 2016
                                                3. Williams T et al: Antenatal diagnosis of intracranial haemorrhage and porencephalic cyst. BMJ Case Rep. 2015
                                                4. Bennett-Back O et al: Magnetoencephalography helps delineate the extent of the epileptogenic zone for surgical planning in children with intractable epilepsy due to porencephalic cyst/encephalomalacia. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 14(3):271-8, 2014
                                                5. Ryzenman JM et al: Porencephalic cyst: a review of the literature and management of a rare cause of cerebrospinal fluid otorrhea. Otol Neurotol. 28(3):381-6, 2007
                                                Related Anatomy
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                                                Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                                References
                                                Tables

                                                Tables

                                                KEY FACTS

                                                • Terminology

                                                  • Imaging

                                                    • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                      • Pathology

                                                        • Clinical Issues

                                                          • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                            TERMINOLOGY

                                                            • Synonyms

                                                              • Porencephaly
                                                            • Definitions

                                                              • Various definitions of porencephaly
                                                                • Congenital/acquired CSF-filled cavity that usually communicates with ventricular system
                                                                  • Deep, unilateral/bilateral cavities or excavations
                                                                  • Lined by reactive gliosis/astrocytic proliferation
                                                                • Presence of cysts/cavities in brain parenchyma
                                                                  • Communicating by "pore" with arachnoid space
                                                                • Cavities arising in fetal life or early infancy
                                                                  • Brain destruction (e.g., hemorrhagic venous infarct) in early intrauterine development or postnatal injury of prematurity
                                                                  • Frequently communicate with subarachnoid space &/or lateral ventricles

                                                            IMAGING

                                                            • General Features

                                                              • CT Findings

                                                                • MR Findings

                                                                  • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                                    • Nonvascular Interventions

                                                                      • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                                        • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                            PATHOLOGY

                                                                            • General Features

                                                                              • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                                • Microscopic Features

                                                                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                                  • Presentation

                                                                                    • Demographics

                                                                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                        • Treatment

                                                                                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                          • Consider

                                                                                            • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                              Selected References

                                                                                              1. Ha TT et al: A mutation in COL4A2 causes autosomal dominant porencephaly with cataracts. Am J Med Genet A. 170A(4):1059-63, 2016
                                                                                              2. Hino-Fukuyo N et al: Neuroepidemiology of porencephaly, schizencephaly, and hydranencephaly in Miyagi Prefecture, Japan. Pediatr Neurol. 54:39-42.e1, 2016
                                                                                              3. Williams T et al: Antenatal diagnosis of intracranial haemorrhage and porencephalic cyst. BMJ Case Rep. 2015
                                                                                              4. Bennett-Back O et al: Magnetoencephalography helps delineate the extent of the epileptogenic zone for surgical planning in children with intractable epilepsy due to porencephalic cyst/encephalomalacia. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 14(3):271-8, 2014
                                                                                              5. Ryzenman JM et al: Porencephalic cyst: a review of the literature and management of a rare cause of cerebrospinal fluid otorrhea. Otol Neurotol. 28(3):381-6, 2007