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Porencephalic Cyst
Anne G. Osborn, MD, FACR
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Synonyms

              • Porencephaly
            • Definitions

              • Various definitions of porencephaly
                • Congenital/acquired CSF-filled cavity that usually communicates with ventricular system
                  • Deep, unilateral/bilateral cavities or excavations
                  • Lined by reactive gliosis/astrocytic proliferation
                • Presence of cysts/cavities in brain parenchyma
                  • Communicating by "pore" with arachnoid space
                • Cavities arising in fetal life or early infancy
                  • Brain destruction during perinatal period
                  • Frequently communicate with subarachnoid space &/or lateral ventricles

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • CT Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Ultrasonographic Findings

                    • Nonvascular Interventions

                      • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                        • Imaging Recommendations

                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                            PATHOLOGY

                            • General Features

                              • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                • Microscopic Features

                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                  • Presentation

                                    • Demographics

                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                        • Treatment

                                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                          • Consider

                                            • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                              Selected References

                                              1. Zagaglia S et al: Neurologic phenotypes associated with COL4A1/2 mutations: expanding the spectrum of disease. Neurology. 91(22):e2078-88, 2018
                                              2. Abergel A et al: Expanding porencephalic cysts: prenatal imaging and differential diagnosis. Fetal Diagn Ther. 41(3):226-33, 2016
                                              3. Williams T et al: Antenatal diagnosis of intracranial haemorrhage and porencephalic cyst. BMJ Case Rep. 2015, 2015
                                              4. Bennett-Back O et al: Magnetoencephalography helps delineate the extent of the epileptogenic zone for surgical planning in children with intractable epilepsy due to porencephalic cyst/encephalomalacia. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 14(3):271-8, 2014
                                              Related Anatomy
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                                              Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                              References
                                              Tables

                                              Tables

                                              KEY FACTS

                                              • Terminology

                                                • Imaging

                                                  • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                    • Pathology

                                                      • Clinical Issues

                                                        TERMINOLOGY

                                                        • Synonyms

                                                          • Porencephaly
                                                        • Definitions

                                                          • Various definitions of porencephaly
                                                            • Congenital/acquired CSF-filled cavity that usually communicates with ventricular system
                                                              • Deep, unilateral/bilateral cavities or excavations
                                                              • Lined by reactive gliosis/astrocytic proliferation
                                                            • Presence of cysts/cavities in brain parenchyma
                                                              • Communicating by "pore" with arachnoid space
                                                            • Cavities arising in fetal life or early infancy
                                                              • Brain destruction during perinatal period
                                                              • Frequently communicate with subarachnoid space &/or lateral ventricles

                                                        IMAGING

                                                        • General Features

                                                          • CT Findings

                                                            • MR Findings

                                                              • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                                • Nonvascular Interventions

                                                                  • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                                    • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                        PATHOLOGY

                                                                        • General Features

                                                                          • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                            • Microscopic Features

                                                                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                              • Presentation

                                                                                • Demographics

                                                                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                    • Treatment

                                                                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                      • Consider

                                                                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                          Selected References

                                                                                          1. Zagaglia S et al: Neurologic phenotypes associated with COL4A1/2 mutations: expanding the spectrum of disease. Neurology. 91(22):e2078-88, 2018
                                                                                          2. Abergel A et al: Expanding porencephalic cysts: prenatal imaging and differential diagnosis. Fetal Diagn Ther. 41(3):226-33, 2016
                                                                                          3. Williams T et al: Antenatal diagnosis of intracranial haemorrhage and porencephalic cyst. BMJ Case Rep. 2015, 2015
                                                                                          4. Bennett-Back O et al: Magnetoencephalography helps delineate the extent of the epileptogenic zone for surgical planning in children with intractable epilepsy due to porencephalic cyst/encephalomalacia. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 14(3):271-8, 2014