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Post-Traumatic Cephalocele
Bernadette L. Koch, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Abbreviations

              • Middle ear cavity (MEC)
              • Petrous apex (PA)
            • Definitions

              • Herniation of intracranial contents through osseous defect in tegmen tympani, PA, or mastoid roof
                • Terminology based on contents of herniated material
                  • Meningocele: Meninges
                  • Encephalocele: Meninges + brain parenchyma
                • Secondary to fracture + dural tear or prior surgery
                  • CSF pulsations → increased size of fracture or surgical defect

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • CT Findings

                • MR Findings

                  DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                    PATHOLOGY

                    • General Features

                      CLINICAL ISSUES

                      • Presentation

                        • Treatment

                          Selected References

                          1. Sanna M et al: Management of meningoencephalic herniation of the temporal bone: Personal experience and literature review. Laryngoscope. 119(8):1579-85, 2009
                          2. Sanna M et al: Otoneurological management of petrous apex cholesterol granuloma. Am J Otolaryngol. 30(6):407-14, 2009
                          3. Lee MH et al: Prevalence and appearance of the posterior wall defects of the temporal bone caused by presumed arachnoid granulations and their clinical significance: CT findings. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 29(9):1704-7, 2008
                          4. VandeVyver V et al: Arachnoid granulations of the posterior temporal bone wall: imaging appearance and differential diagnosis. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 28(4):610-2, 2007
                          5. Jackler RK et al: A new theory to explain the genesis of petrous apex cholesterol granuloma. Otol Neurotol. 24(1):96-106; discussion 106, 2003
                          Related Anatomy
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                          Related Differential Diagnoses
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                          References
                          Tables

                          Tables

                          KEY FACTS

                          • Terminology

                            • Imaging

                              • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                • Pathology

                                  • Clinical Issues

                                    TERMINOLOGY

                                    • Abbreviations

                                      • Middle ear cavity (MEC)
                                      • Petrous apex (PA)
                                    • Definitions

                                      • Herniation of intracranial contents through osseous defect in tegmen tympani, PA, or mastoid roof
                                        • Terminology based on contents of herniated material
                                          • Meningocele: Meninges
                                          • Encephalocele: Meninges + brain parenchyma
                                        • Secondary to fracture + dural tear or prior surgery
                                          • CSF pulsations → increased size of fracture or surgical defect

                                    IMAGING

                                    • General Features

                                      • CT Findings

                                        • MR Findings

                                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                            PATHOLOGY

                                            • General Features

                                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                                              • Presentation

                                                • Treatment

                                                  Selected References

                                                  1. Sanna M et al: Management of meningoencephalic herniation of the temporal bone: Personal experience and literature review. Laryngoscope. 119(8):1579-85, 2009
                                                  2. Sanna M et al: Otoneurological management of petrous apex cholesterol granuloma. Am J Otolaryngol. 30(6):407-14, 2009
                                                  3. Lee MH et al: Prevalence and appearance of the posterior wall defects of the temporal bone caused by presumed arachnoid granulations and their clinical significance: CT findings. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 29(9):1704-7, 2008
                                                  4. VandeVyver V et al: Arachnoid granulations of the posterior temporal bone wall: imaging appearance and differential diagnosis. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 28(4):610-2, 2007
                                                  5. Jackler RK et al: A new theory to explain the genesis of petrous apex cholesterol granuloma. Otol Neurotol. 24(1):96-106; discussion 106, 2003