link
Bookmarks
Posterior Cervical Space Schwannoma
Bronwyn E. Hamilton, MD
To access 4,300 diagnoses written by the world's leading experts in radiology, please log in or subscribe.Subscribe
0
6
6
1

KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Clinical Issues

          • Diagnostic Checklist

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Abbreviations

              • Schwannoma of posterior cervical space (PCS)
            • Synonyms

              • Neuroma, neurinoma, neurilemmoma, nerve sheath tumor
            • Definitions

              • Benign, slow-growing Schwann cell neoplasm arising in PCS from CNXI, brachial plexus, or cervical sensory nerve

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • CT Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Ultrasonographic Findings

                    • Angiographic Findings

                      • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                        • Image-Guided Biopsy

                          • Imaging Recommendations

                            DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                              PATHOLOGY

                              • General Features

                                • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                  • Microscopic Features

                                    CLINICAL ISSUES

                                    • Presentation

                                      • Demographics

                                        • Natural History & Prognosis

                                          • Treatment

                                            DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                            • Consider

                                              • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                Selected References

                                                1. Brenner AV et al: Radiation risk of central nervous system tumors in the life span study of atomic bomb survivors, 1958-2009. Eur J Epidemiol. 35(6):591-600, 2020
                                                2. Demerath T et al: Golden-angle radial sparse parallel (GRASP) MRI differentiates head & neck paragangliomas from schwannomas. Magn Reson Imaging. 70:73-80, 2020
                                                3. Dsouza R et al: Cervical sympathetic schwannoma: a forgotten differential for Horner's syndrome. ANZ J Surg. 90(4):638-40, 2020
                                                4. El Sayed L et al: Natural history of peripheral nerve schwannomas. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 162(8):1883-9, 2020
                                                5. Helbing DL et al: Pathomechanisms in schwannoma development and progression. Oncogene. 39(32):5421-9, 2020
                                                6. Suthiphosuwan S et al: Computed tomography angiography lightbulb sign: characteristic enhancement pattern on neck computed tomography angiography in differentiating paraganglioma from schwannoma of the carotid space. Neuroradiol J. 1971400920924318, 2020
                                                7. Vindhyal MR et al: Carney complex. StatPearls, 2020
                                                8. Boumaza K et al: Peripheral neck nerve tumor: a 73-case study and literature review. Eur Ann Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Dis. 136(6):455-60, 2019
                                                9. El Fakiri MM et al: Schwannoma of the extracranial portion of the accessory nerve presenting as spinal adenopathy. BMJ Case Rep. 12(5), 2019
                                                10. Ansari I et al: Head and neck schwannomas: a surgical challenge-a series of 5 cases. Case Rep Otolaryngol. 2018:4074905, 2018
                                                11. Graffeo CS et al: Preoperative diagnosis of vagal and sympathetic cervical schwannomas based on radiographic findings. J Neurosurg. 126(3):690-7, 2017
                                                12. Itawi SA et al: A unique case of carotid splaying by a cervical vagal neurofibroma and the role of neuroradiology in surgical management. Cureus. 9(9):e1658, 2017
                                                13. Zheng X et al: Extracranial schwannoma in the carotid space: a retrospective review of 91 cases. Head Neck. 39(1):42-7, 2017
                                                14. Ochoa-Escudero M et al: Unicentric Castleman's disease in the posterior cervical space mimicking a schwannoma. Eur Ann Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Dis. 133(3):191-3, 2015
                                                15. Sinkkonen ST et al: Experience of head and neck extracranial schwannomas in a whole population-based single-center patient series. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 271(11):3027-34, 2014
                                                16. Liu HL et al: Extracranial head and neck Schwannomas: a study of the nerve of origin. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 268(9):1343-7, 2011
                                                17. Kato H et al: "Flow-void" sign at MR imaging: a rare finding of extracranial head and neck schwannomas. J Magn Reson Imaging. 31(3):703-5, 2010
                                                18. Shirakura S et al: Parapharyngeal space tumors: anatomical and image analysis findings. Auris Nasus Larynx. 37(5):621-5, 2010
                                                19. Guerrissi JO: Solitary benign schwannomas in major nerve systems of the head and neck. J Craniofac Surg. 20(3):957-61, 2009
                                                20. Kato H et al: Fluid-fluid level formation: a rare finding of extracranial head and neck schwannomas. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 30(7):1451-3, 2009
                                                21. de Araujo CE et al: Neck nerve trunks schwannomas: clinical features and postoperative neurologic outcome. Laryngoscope. 118(9):1579-82, 2008
                                                22. Biswas D et al: Extracranial head and neck schwannomas--a 10-year review. Auris Nasus Larynx. 34(3):353-9, 2007
                                                23. Kang GC et al: Extracranial non-vestibular head and neck schwannomas: a ten-year experience. Ann Acad Med Singapore. 36(4):233-8, 2007
                                                24. Zhang H et al: Extracranial head and neck schwannomas: a clinical analysis of 33 patients. Laryngoscope. 117(2):278-81, 2007
                                                25. Jung TY et al: Intracisternal schwannoma of the spinal accessory nerve: a case report. Skull Base. 16(3):175-9, 2006
                                                26. Park CK et al: Microhemorrhage, a possible mechanism for cyst formation in vestibular schwannomas. J Neurosurg. 105(4):576-80, 2006
                                                27. Agrawal A et al: Intrasternomastoid spinal accessory nerve schwannoma: clinical and radiological correlation. Neurol India. 53(3):347-8, 2005
                                                28. Malone JP et al: Clinical characteristics and treatment outcome for nonvestibular schwannomas of the head and neck. Am J Otolaryngol. 26(2):108-12, 2005
                                                29. Moukarbel RV et al: Current management of head and neck schwannomas. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 13(2):117-22, 2005
                                                30. Isobe K et al: Imaging of ancient schwannoma. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 183(2):331-6, 2004
                                                31. Culhaci N et al: Multiple melanotic schwannoma. Ann Diagn Pathol. 7(4):254-8, 2003
                                                32. de Vicente Rodriguez JC et al: Neck schwannomas. Med Oral. 8(1):71-6, 2003
                                                33. Kaufman DL et al: Somatic instability of the NF2 gene in schwannomatosis. Arch Neurol. 60(9):1317-20, 2003
                                                34. Leu YS et al: Extracranial head and neck schwannomas: a review of 8 years experience. Acta Otolaryngol. 122(4):435-7, 2002
                                                35. Ahmed AR et al: Schwannoma of the extremities: the role of PET in preoperative planning. Eur J Nucl Med. 28(10):1541-51, 2001
                                                36. Carew JF et al: Clinical considerations for neoplasms of the neck. In Fu et al: Head and Neck Pathology With Clinical Correlations. Churchill Livingstone. 771-99, 2001
                                                37. Devaney K: Pathology of lesions of the neck. In Fu et al: Head and Neck Pathology With Clinical Correlations. Churchill Livingstone. 799-839, 2001
                                                38. Leonetti JP et al: Extracranial lower cranial nerve sheath tumors. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 125(6):640-4, 2001
                                                39. Colreavy MP et al: Head and neck schwannomas--a 10 year review. J Laryngol Otol. 114(2):119-24, 2000
                                                40. Hood RJ et al: Schwannoma of the cervical sympathetic chain. The Virginia experience. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 109(1):48-51, 2000
                                                41. Ku HC et al: Cervical schwannoma: a case report and eight years review. J Laryngol Otol. 114(6):414-7, 2000
                                                42. Weber AL et al: Neurogenic tumors of the neck. Radiol Clin North Am. 38(5):1077-90, 2000
                                                43. Kubota M et al: Schwannoma of the spinal accessory nerve. J Clin Neurosci. 5(4):436-7, 1998
                                                44. Valentino J et al: Expected neurologic outcomes for surgical treatment of cervical neurilemomas. Laryngoscope. 108(7):1009-13, 1998
                                                45. Bhargava R et al: MR imaging differentiation of benign and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors: use of the target sign. Pediatr Radiol. 27(2):124-9, 1997
                                                46. King AD et al: Sonography of peripheral nerve tumors of the neck. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 169(6):1695-8, 1997
                                                47. Wolkenstein P et al: Schwannomatosis: a clinical entity distinct from neurofibromatosis type 2. Dermatology. 195(3):228-31, 1997
                                                48. Ohkawa M et al: Radiologic manifestation of spinal accessory neurinoma: a case report. Radiat Med. 14(5):269-73, 1996
                                                49. Kempf HG et al: Diagnostic and clinical outcome of neurogenic tumours in the head and neck area. ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec. 57(5):273-8, 1995
                                                50. Ortiz O et al: Spinal accessory nerve schwannoma involving the jugular foramen. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 16(4 Suppl):986-9, 1995
                                                51. Fabrizi AP et al: Benign solitary nerve sheath tumors of the spinal accessory nerve in the posterior triangle of the neck. Report of two cases. J Neurosurg Sci. 36(4):247-50, 1992
                                                52. Bailet JW et al: Malignant nerve sheath tumors of the head and neck: a combined experience from two university hospitals. Laryngoscope. 101(10):1044-9, 1991
                                                53. Yousem SA et al: Malignant epithelioid schwannoma arising in a benign schwannoma. A case report. Cancer. 55(12):2799-803, 1985
                                                Related Anatomy
                                                Loading...
                                                Related Differential Diagnoses
                                                Loading...
                                                References
                                                Tables

                                                Tables

                                                KEY FACTS

                                                • Terminology

                                                  • Imaging

                                                    • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                      • Clinical Issues

                                                        • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                          TERMINOLOGY

                                                          • Abbreviations

                                                            • Schwannoma of posterior cervical space (PCS)
                                                          • Synonyms

                                                            • Neuroma, neurinoma, neurilemmoma, nerve sheath tumor
                                                          • Definitions

                                                            • Benign, slow-growing Schwann cell neoplasm arising in PCS from CNXI, brachial plexus, or cervical sensory nerve

                                                          IMAGING

                                                          • General Features

                                                            • CT Findings

                                                              • MR Findings

                                                                • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                                  • Angiographic Findings

                                                                    • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                                      • Image-Guided Biopsy

                                                                        • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                            PATHOLOGY

                                                                            • General Features

                                                                              • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                                • Microscopic Features

                                                                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                                  • Presentation

                                                                                    • Demographics

                                                                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                        • Treatment

                                                                                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                          • Consider

                                                                                            • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                              Selected References

                                                                                              1. Brenner AV et al: Radiation risk of central nervous system tumors in the life span study of atomic bomb survivors, 1958-2009. Eur J Epidemiol. 35(6):591-600, 2020
                                                                                              2. Demerath T et al: Golden-angle radial sparse parallel (GRASP) MRI differentiates head & neck paragangliomas from schwannomas. Magn Reson Imaging. 70:73-80, 2020
                                                                                              3. Dsouza R et al: Cervical sympathetic schwannoma: a forgotten differential for Horner's syndrome. ANZ J Surg. 90(4):638-40, 2020
                                                                                              4. El Sayed L et al: Natural history of peripheral nerve schwannomas. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 162(8):1883-9, 2020
                                                                                              5. Helbing DL et al: Pathomechanisms in schwannoma development and progression. Oncogene. 39(32):5421-9, 2020
                                                                                              6. Suthiphosuwan S et al: Computed tomography angiography lightbulb sign: characteristic enhancement pattern on neck computed tomography angiography in differentiating paraganglioma from schwannoma of the carotid space. Neuroradiol J. 1971400920924318, 2020
                                                                                              7. Vindhyal MR et al: Carney complex. StatPearls, 2020
                                                                                              8. Boumaza K et al: Peripheral neck nerve tumor: a 73-case study and literature review. Eur Ann Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Dis. 136(6):455-60, 2019
                                                                                              9. El Fakiri MM et al: Schwannoma of the extracranial portion of the accessory nerve presenting as spinal adenopathy. BMJ Case Rep. 12(5), 2019
                                                                                              10. Ansari I et al: Head and neck schwannomas: a surgical challenge-a series of 5 cases. Case Rep Otolaryngol. 2018:4074905, 2018
                                                                                              11. Graffeo CS et al: Preoperative diagnosis of vagal and sympathetic cervical schwannomas based on radiographic findings. J Neurosurg. 126(3):690-7, 2017
                                                                                              12. Itawi SA et al: A unique case of carotid splaying by a cervical vagal neurofibroma and the role of neuroradiology in surgical management. Cureus. 9(9):e1658, 2017
                                                                                              13. Zheng X et al: Extracranial schwannoma in the carotid space: a retrospective review of 91 cases. Head Neck. 39(1):42-7, 2017
                                                                                              14. Ochoa-Escudero M et al: Unicentric Castleman's disease in the posterior cervical space mimicking a schwannoma. Eur Ann Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Dis. 133(3):191-3, 2015
                                                                                              15. Sinkkonen ST et al: Experience of head and neck extracranial schwannomas in a whole population-based single-center patient series. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 271(11):3027-34, 2014
                                                                                              16. Liu HL et al: Extracranial head and neck Schwannomas: a study of the nerve of origin. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 268(9):1343-7, 2011
                                                                                              17. Kato H et al: "Flow-void" sign at MR imaging: a rare finding of extracranial head and neck schwannomas. J Magn Reson Imaging. 31(3):703-5, 2010
                                                                                              18. Shirakura S et al: Parapharyngeal space tumors: anatomical and image analysis findings. Auris Nasus Larynx. 37(5):621-5, 2010
                                                                                              19. Guerrissi JO: Solitary benign schwannomas in major nerve systems of the head and neck. J Craniofac Surg. 20(3):957-61, 2009
                                                                                              20. Kato H et al: Fluid-fluid level formation: a rare finding of extracranial head and neck schwannomas. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 30(7):1451-3, 2009
                                                                                              21. de Araujo CE et al: Neck nerve trunks schwannomas: clinical features and postoperative neurologic outcome. Laryngoscope. 118(9):1579-82, 2008
                                                                                              22. Biswas D et al: Extracranial head and neck schwannomas--a 10-year review. Auris Nasus Larynx. 34(3):353-9, 2007
                                                                                              23. Kang GC et al: Extracranial non-vestibular head and neck schwannomas: a ten-year experience. Ann Acad Med Singapore. 36(4):233-8, 2007
                                                                                              24. Zhang H et al: Extracranial head and neck schwannomas: a clinical analysis of 33 patients. Laryngoscope. 117(2):278-81, 2007
                                                                                              25. Jung TY et al: Intracisternal schwannoma of the spinal accessory nerve: a case report. Skull Base. 16(3):175-9, 2006
                                                                                              26. Park CK et al: Microhemorrhage, a possible mechanism for cyst formation in vestibular schwannomas. J Neurosurg. 105(4):576-80, 2006
                                                                                              27. Agrawal A et al: Intrasternomastoid spinal accessory nerve schwannoma: clinical and radiological correlation. Neurol India. 53(3):347-8, 2005
                                                                                              28. Malone JP et al: Clinical characteristics and treatment outcome for nonvestibular schwannomas of the head and neck. Am J Otolaryngol. 26(2):108-12, 2005
                                                                                              29. Moukarbel RV et al: Current management of head and neck schwannomas. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 13(2):117-22, 2005
                                                                                              30. Isobe K et al: Imaging of ancient schwannoma. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 183(2):331-6, 2004
                                                                                              31. Culhaci N et al: Multiple melanotic schwannoma. Ann Diagn Pathol. 7(4):254-8, 2003
                                                                                              32. de Vicente Rodriguez JC et al: Neck schwannomas. Med Oral. 8(1):71-6, 2003
                                                                                              33. Kaufman DL et al: Somatic instability of the NF2 gene in schwannomatosis. Arch Neurol. 60(9):1317-20, 2003
                                                                                              34. Leu YS et al: Extracranial head and neck schwannomas: a review of 8 years experience. Acta Otolaryngol. 122(4):435-7, 2002
                                                                                              35. Ahmed AR et al: Schwannoma of the extremities: the role of PET in preoperative planning. Eur J Nucl Med. 28(10):1541-51, 2001
                                                                                              36. Carew JF et al: Clinical considerations for neoplasms of the neck. In Fu et al: Head and Neck Pathology With Clinical Correlations. Churchill Livingstone. 771-99, 2001
                                                                                              37. Devaney K: Pathology of lesions of the neck. In Fu et al: Head and Neck Pathology With Clinical Correlations. Churchill Livingstone. 799-839, 2001
                                                                                              38. Leonetti JP et al: Extracranial lower cranial nerve sheath tumors. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 125(6):640-4, 2001
                                                                                              39. Colreavy MP et al: Head and neck schwannomas--a 10 year review. J Laryngol Otol. 114(2):119-24, 2000
                                                                                              40. Hood RJ et al: Schwannoma of the cervical sympathetic chain. The Virginia experience. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 109(1):48-51, 2000
                                                                                              41. Ku HC et al: Cervical schwannoma: a case report and eight years review. J Laryngol Otol. 114(6):414-7, 2000
                                                                                              42. Weber AL et al: Neurogenic tumors of the neck. Radiol Clin North Am. 38(5):1077-90, 2000
                                                                                              43. Kubota M et al: Schwannoma of the spinal accessory nerve. J Clin Neurosci. 5(4):436-7, 1998
                                                                                              44. Valentino J et al: Expected neurologic outcomes for surgical treatment of cervical neurilemomas. Laryngoscope. 108(7):1009-13, 1998
                                                                                              45. Bhargava R et al: MR imaging differentiation of benign and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors: use of the target sign. Pediatr Radiol. 27(2):124-9, 1997
                                                                                              46. King AD et al: Sonography of peripheral nerve tumors of the neck. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 169(6):1695-8, 1997
                                                                                              47. Wolkenstein P et al: Schwannomatosis: a clinical entity distinct from neurofibromatosis type 2. Dermatology. 195(3):228-31, 1997
                                                                                              48. Ohkawa M et al: Radiologic manifestation of spinal accessory neurinoma: a case report. Radiat Med. 14(5):269-73, 1996
                                                                                              49. Kempf HG et al: Diagnostic and clinical outcome of neurogenic tumours in the head and neck area. ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec. 57(5):273-8, 1995
                                                                                              50. Ortiz O et al: Spinal accessory nerve schwannoma involving the jugular foramen. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 16(4 Suppl):986-9, 1995
                                                                                              51. Fabrizi AP et al: Benign solitary nerve sheath tumors of the spinal accessory nerve in the posterior triangle of the neck. Report of two cases. J Neurosurg Sci. 36(4):247-50, 1992
                                                                                              52. Bailet JW et al: Malignant nerve sheath tumors of the head and neck: a combined experience from two university hospitals. Laryngoscope. 101(10):1044-9, 1991
                                                                                              53. Yousem SA et al: Malignant epithelioid schwannoma arising in a benign schwannoma. A case report. Cancer. 55(12):2799-803, 1985