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Posterior Cruciate Ligament Injury
Andrew Sonin, MD, FACR; Donna G. Blankenbaker, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Pathology

        • Clinical Issues

          • Diagnostic Checklist

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Abbreviations

              • Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL)
            • Synonyms

              • PCL tear
            • Definitions

              • Partial or complete disruption of PCL fibers or their osseous attachments

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • Radiographic Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Imaging Recommendations

                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                      PATHOLOGY

                      • General Features

                        • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                          CLINICAL ISSUES

                          • Presentation

                            • Demographics

                              • Natural History & Prognosis

                                • Treatment

                                  DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                  • Consider

                                    • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                      • Reporting Tips

                                        Selected References

                                        1. LaPrade CM et al: Emerging updates on the posterior cruciate ligament: a review of the current literature. Am J Sports Med. 43(12): 3077-92, 2015
                                        2. Levy BA et al: Advances in posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Instr Course Lect. 64:543-54, 2015
                                        3. Narvy SJ et al: Anatomy of the femoral footprint of the posterior cruciate ligament: a systematic review. Arthroscopy. 31(2):345-54, 2015
                                        4. Naraghi A et al: MR imaging of cruciate ligaments. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 22(4):557-80, 2014
                                        5. Park HJ et al: The usefulness of the oblique coronal plane in knee MRI on the evaluation of the posterior cruciate ligament. Acta Radiol. 55(8):961-8, 2014
                                        6. Wang JH et al: Effects of knee flexion angle and loading conditions on the end-to-end distance of the posterior cruciate ligament: a comparison of the roles of the anterolateral and posteromedial bundles. Am J Sports Med. 42(12):2972-8, 2014
                                        7. White EA et al: Cruciate ligament avulsion fractures: Anatomy, biomechanics, injury patterns, and approach to management. Emerg Radiol. Epub ahead of print, 2013
                                        8. Rosenthal MD et al: Evaluation and management of posterior cruciate ligament injuries. Phys Ther Sport. 13(4):196-208, 2012
                                        9. Chen B et al: Double-bundle posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using a non-hardware suspension fixation technique and 8 strands of autogenous hamstring tendons. Arthroscopy. 25(7):777-82, 2009
                                        10. Hermans S et al: Long-term results of isolated anterolateral bundle reconstructions of the posterior cruciate ligament: a 6- to 12-year follow-up study. Am J Sports Med. 37(8):1499-507, 2009
                                        11. McAllister DR et al: Posterior cruciate ligament biomechanics and options for surgical treatment. Instr Course Lect. 58:377-88, 2009
                                        12. Sorrentino F et al: Role of high-resolution ultrasonography without and with real-time spatial compound imaging in evaluating the injured posterior cruciate ligament: preliminary study. Radiol Med. 114(2):312-20, 2009
                                        13. Jung YB et al: Characterization of spontaneous healing of chronic posterior cruciate ligament injury: Analysis of instability and magnetic resonance imaging. J Magn Reson Imaging. 27(6):1336-40, 2008
                                        14. Rodriguez W Jr et al: MRI appearance of posterior cruciate ligament tears. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 191(4):1031, 2008
                                        15. Bellelli A et al: Magnetic resonance imaging of posterior cruciate ligament injuries: a new classification of traumatic tears. Radiol Med. 111(6):828-35, 2006
                                        16. Cosgarea AJ et al: Posterior cruciate ligament injuries: evaluation and management. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 9(5):297-307, 2001
                                        17. Sherman PM et al: MR imaging of the posterior cruciate ligament graft: initial experience in 15 patients with clinical correlation. Radiology. 221(1):191-8, 2001
                                        18. Shelbourne KD et al: Magnetic resonance imaging of posterior cruciate ligament injuries: assessment of healing. Am J Knee Surg. 12(4):209-13, 1999
                                        19. Sonin AH et al: MR imaging of the posterior cruciate ligament: normal, abnormal, and associated injury patterns. Radiographics. 15(3):551-61, 1995
                                        20. Fanelli GC et al: The posterior cruciate ligament arthroscopic evaluation and treatment. Arthroscopy. 10(6):673-88, 1994
                                        21. Patten RM et al: Complete vs partial-thickness tears of the posterior cruciate ligament: MR findings. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 18(5):793-9, 1994
                                        22. Sonin AH et al: Posterior cruciate ligament injury: MR imaging diagnosis and patterns of injury. Radiology. 190(2):455-8, 1994
                                        23. Miller MD et al: Posterior cruciate ligament injuries. Orthop Rev. 22(11):1201-10, 1993
                                        24. Barrett GR et al: Operative management of acute PCL injuries with associated pathology: long-term results. Orthopedics. 14(6):687-92, 1991
                                        Related Anatomy
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                                        References
                                        Tables

                                        Tables

                                        KEY FACTS

                                        • Terminology

                                          • Imaging

                                            • Pathology

                                              • Clinical Issues

                                                • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                  TERMINOLOGY

                                                  • Abbreviations

                                                    • Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL)
                                                  • Synonyms

                                                    • PCL tear
                                                  • Definitions

                                                    • Partial or complete disruption of PCL fibers or their osseous attachments

                                                  IMAGING

                                                  • General Features

                                                    • Radiographic Findings

                                                      • MR Findings

                                                        • Imaging Recommendations

                                                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                            PATHOLOGY

                                                            • General Features

                                                              • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                • Presentation

                                                                  • Demographics

                                                                    • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                      • Treatment

                                                                        DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                        • Consider

                                                                          • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                            • Reporting Tips

                                                                              Selected References

                                                                              1. LaPrade CM et al: Emerging updates on the posterior cruciate ligament: a review of the current literature. Am J Sports Med. 43(12): 3077-92, 2015
                                                                              2. Levy BA et al: Advances in posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Instr Course Lect. 64:543-54, 2015
                                                                              3. Narvy SJ et al: Anatomy of the femoral footprint of the posterior cruciate ligament: a systematic review. Arthroscopy. 31(2):345-54, 2015
                                                                              4. Naraghi A et al: MR imaging of cruciate ligaments. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 22(4):557-80, 2014
                                                                              5. Park HJ et al: The usefulness of the oblique coronal plane in knee MRI on the evaluation of the posterior cruciate ligament. Acta Radiol. 55(8):961-8, 2014
                                                                              6. Wang JH et al: Effects of knee flexion angle and loading conditions on the end-to-end distance of the posterior cruciate ligament: a comparison of the roles of the anterolateral and posteromedial bundles. Am J Sports Med. 42(12):2972-8, 2014
                                                                              7. White EA et al: Cruciate ligament avulsion fractures: Anatomy, biomechanics, injury patterns, and approach to management. Emerg Radiol. Epub ahead of print, 2013
                                                                              8. Rosenthal MD et al: Evaluation and management of posterior cruciate ligament injuries. Phys Ther Sport. 13(4):196-208, 2012
                                                                              9. Chen B et al: Double-bundle posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using a non-hardware suspension fixation technique and 8 strands of autogenous hamstring tendons. Arthroscopy. 25(7):777-82, 2009
                                                                              10. Hermans S et al: Long-term results of isolated anterolateral bundle reconstructions of the posterior cruciate ligament: a 6- to 12-year follow-up study. Am J Sports Med. 37(8):1499-507, 2009
                                                                              11. McAllister DR et al: Posterior cruciate ligament biomechanics and options for surgical treatment. Instr Course Lect. 58:377-88, 2009
                                                                              12. Sorrentino F et al: Role of high-resolution ultrasonography without and with real-time spatial compound imaging in evaluating the injured posterior cruciate ligament: preliminary study. Radiol Med. 114(2):312-20, 2009
                                                                              13. Jung YB et al: Characterization of spontaneous healing of chronic posterior cruciate ligament injury: Analysis of instability and magnetic resonance imaging. J Magn Reson Imaging. 27(6):1336-40, 2008
                                                                              14. Rodriguez W Jr et al: MRI appearance of posterior cruciate ligament tears. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 191(4):1031, 2008
                                                                              15. Bellelli A et al: Magnetic resonance imaging of posterior cruciate ligament injuries: a new classification of traumatic tears. Radiol Med. 111(6):828-35, 2006
                                                                              16. Cosgarea AJ et al: Posterior cruciate ligament injuries: evaluation and management. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 9(5):297-307, 2001
                                                                              17. Sherman PM et al: MR imaging of the posterior cruciate ligament graft: initial experience in 15 patients with clinical correlation. Radiology. 221(1):191-8, 2001
                                                                              18. Shelbourne KD et al: Magnetic resonance imaging of posterior cruciate ligament injuries: assessment of healing. Am J Knee Surg. 12(4):209-13, 1999
                                                                              19. Sonin AH et al: MR imaging of the posterior cruciate ligament: normal, abnormal, and associated injury patterns. Radiographics. 15(3):551-61, 1995
                                                                              20. Fanelli GC et al: The posterior cruciate ligament arthroscopic evaluation and treatment. Arthroscopy. 10(6):673-88, 1994
                                                                              21. Patten RM et al: Complete vs partial-thickness tears of the posterior cruciate ligament: MR findings. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 18(5):793-9, 1994
                                                                              22. Sonin AH et al: Posterior cruciate ligament injury: MR imaging diagnosis and patterns of injury. Radiology. 190(2):455-8, 1994
                                                                              23. Miller MD et al: Posterior cruciate ligament injuries. Orthop Rev. 22(11):1201-10, 1993
                                                                              24. Barrett GR et al: Operative management of acute PCL injuries with associated pathology: long-term results. Orthopedics. 14(6):687-92, 1991