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Postoperative Changes, Liver
Atif Zaheer, MD; Michael P. Federle, MD, FACR
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        TERMINOLOGY

        • Definitions

          • Iatrogenic changes to hepatic morphology that may cause or simulate pathologic conditions

        IMAGING

        • Imaging Recommendations

          • CT Findings

            DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

              CLINICAL ISSUES

              • Demographics

                DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                • Consider

                  Selected References

                  1. Bhayana R et al: Abdominal imaging findings in COVID-19: preliminary observations. Radiology. 297(1):E207-15, 2020
                  2. Timaran Montenegro DE et al: CT-based hepatic residual volume and predictors of outcomes of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma unsuitable for surgical therapy undergoing transarterial chemoembolization. Acad Radiol. 27(6):807-14, 2020
                  3. Yuan C et al: Efficacy of ultrasound-, computed tomography-, and magnetic resonance imaging-guided radiofrequency ablation for hepatocellular carcinoma. J Cancer Res Ther. 15(4):784-92, 2019
                  4. Hafezi-Nejad N et al: Imaging of post-operative pancreas and complications after pancreatic adenocarcinoma resection. Abdom Radiol (NY). 43(2):476-88, 2018
                  5. Minami Y et al: Therapeutic response assessment of RFA for HCC: contrast-enhanced US, CT and MRI. World J Gastroenterol. 20(15):4160-6, 2014
                  6. Rajković Z et al: Differential diagnosis and clinical relevance of pneumobilia or portal vein gas on abdominal x-ray. Acta Clin Croat. 52(3):369-73, 2013
                  7. Kim JH et al: Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation using internally cooled wet electrodes for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 198(2):471-6, 2012
                  8. Pai M et al: Radiofrequency assisted liver resection: analysis of 604 consecutive cases. Eur J Surg Oncol. 38(3):274-80, 2012
                  9. Park SY et al: Radiofrequency ablation of hepatic metastases after curative resection of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2011 Dec;197(6):W1129-34. Erratum in: AJR Am J Roentgenol. 198(1):2, 2012
                  10. Kim AY et al: Venous thrombosis after radiofrequency ablation for hepatocellular carcinoma. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 197(6):1474-80, 2011
                  11. Shah PA et al: Hepatic gas: widening spectrum of causes detected at CT and US in the interventional era. Radiographics. 31(5):1403-13, 2011
                  12. Arnold AC et al: Postoperative Surgicel mimicking abscesses following cholecystectomy and liver biopsy. Emerg Radiol. 15(3):183-5, 2008
                  13. Khankan AA et al: Hepatocellular carcinoma treated with radio frequency ablation: an early evaluation with magnetic resonance imaging. J Magn Reson Imaging. 27(3):546-51, 2008
                  14. Simon CJ et al: Pulmonary radiofrequency ablation: long-term safety and efficacy in 153 patients. Radiology. 243(1):268-75, 2007
                  15. Zhang YJ et al: Hepatocellular carcinoma treated with radiofrequency ablation with or without ethanol injection: a prospective randomized trial. Radiology. 244(2):599-607, 2007
                  16. Ahrar K et al: Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation of renal tumors: technique, complications, and outcomes. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 16(5):679-88, 2005
                  17. Lencioni R et al: Early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with cirrhosis: long-term results of percutaneous image-guided radiofrequency ablation. Radiology. 234(3):961-7, 2005
                  18. Lu DS et al: Radiofrequency ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma: treatment success as defined by histologic examination of the explanted liver. Radiology. 234(3):954-60, 2005
                  19. Oei T et al: Radiofrequency ablation of liver tumors: a new cause of benign portal venous gas. Radiology. 237(2):709-17, 2005
                  20. Sandrasegaran K et al: Distinguishing gelatin bioabsorbable sponge and postoperative abdominal abscess on CT. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 184(2):475-80, 2005
                  21. Wah TM et al: Image-guided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation and incidence of post-radiofrequency ablation syndrome: prospective survey. Radiology. 237(3):1097-102, 2005
                  22. Iannitti DA et al: Portal venous gas detected by computed tomography: is surgery imperative? Dig Surg. 20(4):306-15, 2003
                  23. Rossi S et al: Percutaneous radio-frequency thermal ablation of nonresectable hepatocellular carcinoma after occlusion of tumor blood supply. Radiology. 217(1):119-26, 2000
                  24. Oto A et al: MR characteristics of oxidized cellulose (Surgicel). AJR Am J Roentgenol. 172(6):1481-4, 1999
                  25. Melamed JW et al: Sonographic appearance of oxidized cellulose (Surgicel): pitfall in the diagnosis of postoperative abscess. J Ultrasound Med. 14(1):27-30, 1995
                  26. Young ST et al: Appearance of oxidized cellulose (Surgicel) on postoperative CT scans: similarity to postoperative abscess. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 160(2):275-7, 1993
                  Related Anatomy
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                  Related Differential Diagnoses
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                  References
                  Tables

                  Tables

                  KEY FACTS

                  • Terminology

                    • Imaging

                      • Top Differential Diagnoses

                        TERMINOLOGY

                        • Definitions

                          • Iatrogenic changes to hepatic morphology that may cause or simulate pathologic conditions

                        IMAGING

                        • Imaging Recommendations

                          • CT Findings

                            DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                              • Demographics

                                DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                • Consider

                                  Selected References

                                  1. Bhayana R et al: Abdominal imaging findings in COVID-19: preliminary observations. Radiology. 297(1):E207-15, 2020
                                  2. Timaran Montenegro DE et al: CT-based hepatic residual volume and predictors of outcomes of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma unsuitable for surgical therapy undergoing transarterial chemoembolization. Acad Radiol. 27(6):807-14, 2020
                                  3. Yuan C et al: Efficacy of ultrasound-, computed tomography-, and magnetic resonance imaging-guided radiofrequency ablation for hepatocellular carcinoma. J Cancer Res Ther. 15(4):784-92, 2019
                                  4. Hafezi-Nejad N et al: Imaging of post-operative pancreas and complications after pancreatic adenocarcinoma resection. Abdom Radiol (NY). 43(2):476-88, 2018
                                  5. Minami Y et al: Therapeutic response assessment of RFA for HCC: contrast-enhanced US, CT and MRI. World J Gastroenterol. 20(15):4160-6, 2014
                                  6. Rajković Z et al: Differential diagnosis and clinical relevance of pneumobilia or portal vein gas on abdominal x-ray. Acta Clin Croat. 52(3):369-73, 2013
                                  7. Kim JH et al: Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation using internally cooled wet electrodes for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 198(2):471-6, 2012
                                  8. Pai M et al: Radiofrequency assisted liver resection: analysis of 604 consecutive cases. Eur J Surg Oncol. 38(3):274-80, 2012
                                  9. Park SY et al: Radiofrequency ablation of hepatic metastases after curative resection of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2011 Dec;197(6):W1129-34. Erratum in: AJR Am J Roentgenol. 198(1):2, 2012
                                  10. Kim AY et al: Venous thrombosis after radiofrequency ablation for hepatocellular carcinoma. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 197(6):1474-80, 2011
                                  11. Shah PA et al: Hepatic gas: widening spectrum of causes detected at CT and US in the interventional era. Radiographics. 31(5):1403-13, 2011
                                  12. Arnold AC et al: Postoperative Surgicel mimicking abscesses following cholecystectomy and liver biopsy. Emerg Radiol. 15(3):183-5, 2008
                                  13. Khankan AA et al: Hepatocellular carcinoma treated with radio frequency ablation: an early evaluation with magnetic resonance imaging. J Magn Reson Imaging. 27(3):546-51, 2008
                                  14. Simon CJ et al: Pulmonary radiofrequency ablation: long-term safety and efficacy in 153 patients. Radiology. 243(1):268-75, 2007
                                  15. Zhang YJ et al: Hepatocellular carcinoma treated with radiofrequency ablation with or without ethanol injection: a prospective randomized trial. Radiology. 244(2):599-607, 2007
                                  16. Ahrar K et al: Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation of renal tumors: technique, complications, and outcomes. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 16(5):679-88, 2005
                                  17. Lencioni R et al: Early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with cirrhosis: long-term results of percutaneous image-guided radiofrequency ablation. Radiology. 234(3):961-7, 2005
                                  18. Lu DS et al: Radiofrequency ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma: treatment success as defined by histologic examination of the explanted liver. Radiology. 234(3):954-60, 2005
                                  19. Oei T et al: Radiofrequency ablation of liver tumors: a new cause of benign portal venous gas. Radiology. 237(2):709-17, 2005
                                  20. Sandrasegaran K et al: Distinguishing gelatin bioabsorbable sponge and postoperative abdominal abscess on CT. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 184(2):475-80, 2005
                                  21. Wah TM et al: Image-guided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation and incidence of post-radiofrequency ablation syndrome: prospective survey. Radiology. 237(3):1097-102, 2005
                                  22. Iannitti DA et al: Portal venous gas detected by computed tomography: is surgery imperative? Dig Surg. 20(4):306-15, 2003
                                  23. Rossi S et al: Percutaneous radio-frequency thermal ablation of nonresectable hepatocellular carcinoma after occlusion of tumor blood supply. Radiology. 217(1):119-26, 2000
                                  24. Oto A et al: MR characteristics of oxidized cellulose (Surgicel). AJR Am J Roentgenol. 172(6):1481-4, 1999
                                  25. Melamed JW et al: Sonographic appearance of oxidized cellulose (Surgicel): pitfall in the diagnosis of postoperative abscess. J Ultrasound Med. 14(1):27-30, 1995
                                  26. Young ST et al: Appearance of oxidized cellulose (Surgicel) on postoperative CT scans: similarity to postoperative abscess. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 160(2):275-7, 1993