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Premotor Cortex and Supplementary Motor Area (Area 6)
Jeffrey S. Anderson, MD, PhD; Jared A. Nielsen, PhD
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Location and Boundaries

  • Location

    • Boundaries

      Function

      • Actions

        • Imagery and Observation

          Structural Connections

          • Cortical Connections

            • Subcortical Connections

              Functional Connections

              • Coactive Regions

                • Associated Literature Keywords (NeuroSynth)

                  Area 6-Associated Disorders

                  • Disorders

                    • Treatment and Recovery

                      Selected References

                      1. Genon S et al: The heterogeneity of the left dorsal premotor cortex evidenced by multimodal connectivity-based parcellation and functional characterization. Neuroimage. 170:400-11, 2018
                      2. Rossi-Pool R et al: Decoding a decision process in the neuronal population of dorsal premotor cortex. Neuron. 96(6):1432-46.e7, 2017
                      3. Hoffstaedter F et al: The "what" and "when" of self-initiated movements. Cereb Cortex. 23(3):520-30, 2013
                      4. Hétu S et al: The neural network of motor imagery: an ALE meta-analysis. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 37(5):930-49, 2013
                      5. Duque J et al: Dissociating the role of prefrontal and premotor cortices in controlling inhibitory mechanisms during motor preparation. J Neurosci. 32(3):806-16, 2012
                      6. Molenberghs P et al: Brain regions with mirror properties: a meta-analysis of 125 human fMRI studies. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 36(1):341-9, 2012
                      7. Szameitat AJ et al: Cortical activation during executed, imagined, observed, and passive wrist movements in healthy volunteers and stroke patients. Neuroimage. 62(1):266-80, 2012
                      8. Van Essen DC et al: Parcellations and hemispheric asymmetries of human cerebral cortex analyzed on surface-based atlases. Cereb Cortex. 22(10):2241-62, 2012
                      9. Zhang S et al: Resting-state functional connectivity of the medial superior frontal cortex. Cereb Cortex. 22(1):99-111, 2012
                      10. Marcus DS et al: Informatics and data mining tools and strategies for the human connectome project. Front Neuroinform. 5:4, 2011
                      11. Schilbach L et al: Eyes on me: an fMRI study of the effects of social gaze on action control. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci. 6(4):393-403, 2011
                      12. Shannon BJ et al: Premotor functional connectivity predicts impulsivity in juvenile offenders. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 108(27):11241-5, 2011
                      13. Stadler W et al: Predicting and memorizing observed action: differential premotor cortex involvement. Hum Brain Mapp. 32(5):677-87, 2011
                      14. Tremblay P et al: On the context-dependent nature of the contribution of the ventral premotor cortex to speech perception. Neuroimage. 57(4):1561-71, 2011
                      15. Caspers S et al: ALE meta-analysis of action observation and imitation in the human brain. Neuroimage. 50(3):1148-67, 2010
                      16. Lisberger SG: Visual guidance of smooth-pursuit eye movements: sensation, action, and what happens in between. Neuron. 66(4):477-91, 2010
                      17. Rizzolatti G et al: The functional role of the parieto-frontal mirror circuit: interpretations and misinterpretations. Nat Rev Neurosci. 11(4):264-74, 2010
                      18. Schubotz RI et al: Anatomical and functional parcellation of the human lateral premotor cortex. Neuroimage. 50(2):396-408, 2010
                      19. Desmurget M et al: A parietal-premotor network for movement intention and motor awareness. Trends Cogn Sci. 13(10):411-9, 2009
                      20. Iacoboni M: Imitation, empathy, and mirror neurons. Annu Rev Psychol. 60:653-70, 2009
                      21. Nachev P et al: Functional role of the supplementary and pre-supplementary motor areas. Nat Rev Neurosci. 9(11):856-69, 2008
                      22. Geyer S: The microstructural border between the motor and the cognitive domain in the human cerebral cortex. Adv Anat Embryol Cell Biol. 174:I-VIII, 1-89, 2004
                      Related Anatomy
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                      Related Differential Diagnoses
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                      References
                      Tables

                      Tables

                      Location and Boundaries

                      • Location

                        • Boundaries

                          Function

                          • Actions

                            • Imagery and Observation

                              Structural Connections

                              • Cortical Connections

                                • Subcortical Connections

                                  Functional Connections

                                  • Coactive Regions

                                    • Associated Literature Keywords (NeuroSynth)

                                      Area 6-Associated Disorders

                                      • Disorders

                                        • Treatment and Recovery

                                          Selected References

                                          1. Genon S et al: The heterogeneity of the left dorsal premotor cortex evidenced by multimodal connectivity-based parcellation and functional characterization. Neuroimage. 170:400-11, 2018
                                          2. Rossi-Pool R et al: Decoding a decision process in the neuronal population of dorsal premotor cortex. Neuron. 96(6):1432-46.e7, 2017
                                          3. Hoffstaedter F et al: The "what" and "when" of self-initiated movements. Cereb Cortex. 23(3):520-30, 2013
                                          4. Hétu S et al: The neural network of motor imagery: an ALE meta-analysis. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 37(5):930-49, 2013
                                          5. Duque J et al: Dissociating the role of prefrontal and premotor cortices in controlling inhibitory mechanisms during motor preparation. J Neurosci. 32(3):806-16, 2012
                                          6. Molenberghs P et al: Brain regions with mirror properties: a meta-analysis of 125 human fMRI studies. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 36(1):341-9, 2012
                                          7. Szameitat AJ et al: Cortical activation during executed, imagined, observed, and passive wrist movements in healthy volunteers and stroke patients. Neuroimage. 62(1):266-80, 2012
                                          8. Van Essen DC et al: Parcellations and hemispheric asymmetries of human cerebral cortex analyzed on surface-based atlases. Cereb Cortex. 22(10):2241-62, 2012
                                          9. Zhang S et al: Resting-state functional connectivity of the medial superior frontal cortex. Cereb Cortex. 22(1):99-111, 2012
                                          10. Marcus DS et al: Informatics and data mining tools and strategies for the human connectome project. Front Neuroinform. 5:4, 2011
                                          11. Schilbach L et al: Eyes on me: an fMRI study of the effects of social gaze on action control. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci. 6(4):393-403, 2011
                                          12. Shannon BJ et al: Premotor functional connectivity predicts impulsivity in juvenile offenders. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 108(27):11241-5, 2011
                                          13. Stadler W et al: Predicting and memorizing observed action: differential premotor cortex involvement. Hum Brain Mapp. 32(5):677-87, 2011
                                          14. Tremblay P et al: On the context-dependent nature of the contribution of the ventral premotor cortex to speech perception. Neuroimage. 57(4):1561-71, 2011
                                          15. Caspers S et al: ALE meta-analysis of action observation and imitation in the human brain. Neuroimage. 50(3):1148-67, 2010
                                          16. Lisberger SG: Visual guidance of smooth-pursuit eye movements: sensation, action, and what happens in between. Neuron. 66(4):477-91, 2010
                                          17. Rizzolatti G et al: The functional role of the parieto-frontal mirror circuit: interpretations and misinterpretations. Nat Rev Neurosci. 11(4):264-74, 2010
                                          18. Schubotz RI et al: Anatomical and functional parcellation of the human lateral premotor cortex. Neuroimage. 50(2):396-408, 2010
                                          19. Desmurget M et al: A parietal-premotor network for movement intention and motor awareness. Trends Cogn Sci. 13(10):411-9, 2009
                                          20. Iacoboni M: Imitation, empathy, and mirror neurons. Annu Rev Psychol. 60:653-70, 2009
                                          21. Nachev P et al: Functional role of the supplementary and pre-supplementary motor areas. Nat Rev Neurosci. 9(11):856-69, 2008
                                          22. Geyer S: The microstructural border between the motor and the cognitive domain in the human cerebral cortex. Adv Anat Embryol Cell Biol. 174:I-VIII, 1-89, 2004