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Primary Auditory and Auditory Association Cortex (Areas 41, 42)
Jeffrey S. Anderson, MD, PhD; Jared A. Nielsen, PhD
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Location and Boundaries

  • Location

    • Boundaries

      Function

      • Auditory Perception

        Structural Connections

        • Input

          • Output and Reciprocal Connections

            Functional Connections

            • Coactive Regions

              • Associated Literature Keywords (NeuroSynth)

                Areas 41-, 42-Associated Disorders

                • Cortical Hearing Loss

                  • Cochlear and Peripheral Hearing loss

                    • Tinnitus

                      • Visual Blindness

                        Selected References

                        1. Allen EJ et al: Encoding of natural timbre dimensions in human auditory cortex. Neuroimage. 166:60-70, 2018
                        2. Allen EJ et al: Representations of pitch and timbre variation in human auditory cortex. J Neurosci. 37(5):1284-93, 2017
                        3. Kato HK et al: Network-level control of frequency tuning in auditory cortex. Neuron. 95(2):412-23.e4, 2017
                        4. Tang C et al: Intonational speech prosody encoding in the human auditory cortex. Science. 357(6353):797-801, 2017
                        5. Lakatos P et al: Global dynamics of selective attention and its lapses in primary auditory cortex. Nat Neurosci. 19(12):1707-17, 2016
                        6. De Martino F et al: Frequency preference and attention effects across cortical depths in the human primary auditory cortex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 112(52):16036-41, 2015
                        7. Prigge MD et al: Longitudinal Heschl's gyrus growth during childhood and adolescence in typical development and autism. Autism Res. 6(2):78-90, 2013
                        8. Langers DR et al: Mapping the tonotopic organization in human auditory cortex with minimally salient acoustic stimulation. Cereb Cortex. 22(9):2024-38, 2012
                        9. Roberts LE et al: Ringing ears: the neuroscience of tinnitus. J Neurosci. 30(45):14972-9, 2010
                        10. Woods DL et al: Functional maps of human auditory cortex: effects of acoustic features and attention. PLoS One. 4(4):e5183, 2009
                        11. Upadhyay J et al: Function and connectivity in human primary auditory cortex: a combined fMRI and DTI study at 3 Tesla. Cereb Cortex. 17(10):2420-32, 2007
                        12. Dorsaint-Pierre R et al: Asymmetries of the planum temporale and Heschl's gyrus: relationship to language lateralization. Brain. 129(Pt 5):1164-76, 2006
                        13. Formisano E et al: Mirror-symmetric tonotopic maps in human primary auditory cortex. Neuron. 40(4):859-69, 2003
                        14. Finney EM et al: Visual stimuli activate auditory cortex in the deaf. Nat Neurosci. 4(12):1171-3, 2001
                        15. Morosan P et al: Human primary auditory cortex: cytoarchitectonic subdivisions and mapping into a spatial reference system. Neuroimage. 13(4):684-701, 2001
                        16. Shapleske J et al: The planum temporale: a systematic, quantitative review of its structural, functional and clinical significance. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 29(1):26-49, 1999
                        17. Mühlnickel W et al: Reorganization of auditory cortex in tinnitus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 95(17):10340-3, 1998
                        18. Romani GL et al: Tonotopic organization of the human auditory cortex. Science. 216(4552):1339-40, 1982
                        Related Anatomy
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                        Related Differential Diagnoses
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                        References
                        Tables

                        Tables

                        Location and Boundaries

                        • Location

                          • Boundaries

                            Function

                            • Auditory Perception

                              Structural Connections

                              • Input

                                • Output and Reciprocal Connections

                                  Functional Connections

                                  • Coactive Regions

                                    • Associated Literature Keywords (NeuroSynth)

                                      Areas 41-, 42-Associated Disorders

                                      • Cortical Hearing Loss

                                        • Cochlear and Peripheral Hearing loss

                                          • Tinnitus

                                            • Visual Blindness

                                              Selected References

                                              1. Allen EJ et al: Encoding of natural timbre dimensions in human auditory cortex. Neuroimage. 166:60-70, 2018
                                              2. Allen EJ et al: Representations of pitch and timbre variation in human auditory cortex. J Neurosci. 37(5):1284-93, 2017
                                              3. Kato HK et al: Network-level control of frequency tuning in auditory cortex. Neuron. 95(2):412-23.e4, 2017
                                              4. Tang C et al: Intonational speech prosody encoding in the human auditory cortex. Science. 357(6353):797-801, 2017
                                              5. Lakatos P et al: Global dynamics of selective attention and its lapses in primary auditory cortex. Nat Neurosci. 19(12):1707-17, 2016
                                              6. De Martino F et al: Frequency preference and attention effects across cortical depths in the human primary auditory cortex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 112(52):16036-41, 2015
                                              7. Prigge MD et al: Longitudinal Heschl's gyrus growth during childhood and adolescence in typical development and autism. Autism Res. 6(2):78-90, 2013
                                              8. Langers DR et al: Mapping the tonotopic organization in human auditory cortex with minimally salient acoustic stimulation. Cereb Cortex. 22(9):2024-38, 2012
                                              9. Roberts LE et al: Ringing ears: the neuroscience of tinnitus. J Neurosci. 30(45):14972-9, 2010
                                              10. Woods DL et al: Functional maps of human auditory cortex: effects of acoustic features and attention. PLoS One. 4(4):e5183, 2009
                                              11. Upadhyay J et al: Function and connectivity in human primary auditory cortex: a combined fMRI and DTI study at 3 Tesla. Cereb Cortex. 17(10):2420-32, 2007
                                              12. Dorsaint-Pierre R et al: Asymmetries of the planum temporale and Heschl's gyrus: relationship to language lateralization. Brain. 129(Pt 5):1164-76, 2006
                                              13. Formisano E et al: Mirror-symmetric tonotopic maps in human primary auditory cortex. Neuron. 40(4):859-69, 2003
                                              14. Finney EM et al: Visual stimuli activate auditory cortex in the deaf. Nat Neurosci. 4(12):1171-3, 2001
                                              15. Morosan P et al: Human primary auditory cortex: cytoarchitectonic subdivisions and mapping into a spatial reference system. Neuroimage. 13(4):684-701, 2001
                                              16. Shapleske J et al: The planum temporale: a systematic, quantitative review of its structural, functional and clinical significance. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 29(1):26-49, 1999
                                              17. Mühlnickel W et al: Reorganization of auditory cortex in tinnitus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 95(17):10340-3, 1998
                                              18. Romani GL et al: Tonotopic organization of the human auditory cortex. Science. 216(4552):1339-40, 1982