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Primary Breast Cancer
Umesh D. Oza, MD; Kelli Y. Ha, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Imaging

    • Pathology

      • Clinical Issues

        TERMINOLOGY

        • Definitions

          • Primary breast cancer
            • Ductal cancers (cancers arising from ductal cells)
              • In situ: Tumor cells contained within ducts without stromal invasion by tumor cells
              • Invasive: Tumor has penetrated ductal epithelium and invaded stroma
            • Lobular cancers (cancers arising from lobule cells)
              • In situ: Tumor cells contained within lobules without penetration of lobule walls
              • Invasive: Tumor cells have invaded stroma

        IMAGING

        • F-18 FDG PET/CT Findings

          • F-18 FDG PEM Findings

            • Imaging Recommendations

              DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                PATHOLOGY

                • General Features

                  • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                    CLINICAL ISSUES

                    • Presentation

                      • Demographics

                        DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                        • Consider

                          • Image Interpretation Pearls

                            Selected References

                            1. Gillies RJ et al: PET and MRI: Is the whole greater than the sum of its parts? Cancer Res. 76(21):6163-6166, 2016
                            2. Fowler AM: A molecular approach to breast imaging. J Nucl Med. 55(2):177-80, 2014
                            3. Glass SB et al: Clinical utility of positron emission mammography. Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent). 26(3):314-9, 2013
                            4. Kalles V et al: The current status of positron emission mammography in breast cancer diagnosis. Breast Cancer. 20(2):123-30, 2013
                            5. Ling CM et al: Breast-specific gamma imaging in the detection of atypical ductal hyperplasia and lobular neoplasia. Acad Radiol. 19(6):661-6, 2012
                            6. Hruska CB et al: Molecular breast imaging: use of a dual-head dedicated gamma camera to detect small breast tumors. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 191(6):1805-15, 2008
                            7. Berg WA et al: High-resolution fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography with compression ("positron emission mammography") is highly accurate in depicting primary breast cancer. Breast J. 12(4):309-23, 2006
                            8. Kumar R et al: Clinicopathologic factors associated with false negative FDG-PET in primary breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 98(3):267-74, 2006
                            9. Kumar R et al: Standardized uptake values of normal breast tissue with 2-deoxy-2-[F-18]fluoro-D: -glucose positron emission tomography: variations with age, breast density, and menopausal status. Mol Imaging Biol. 8(6):355-62, 2006
                            10. Pelosi E et al: Value of integrated PET/CT for lesion localisation in cancer patients: a comparative study. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 31(7):932-9, 2004
                            11. Zangheri B et al: PET/CT and breast cancer. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 31 Suppl 1:S135-42, 2004
                            12. Vranjesevic D et al: Relationship between 18F-FDG uptake and breast density in women with normal breast tissue. J Nucl Med. 44(8):1238-42, 2003
                            13. Bos R et al: Biologic correlates of (18)fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in human breast cancer measured by positron emission tomography. J Clin Oncol. 20(2):379-87, 2002
                            14. Schirrmeister H et al: Fluorine-18 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose PET in the preoperative staging of breast cancer: comparison with the standard staging procedures. Eur J Nucl Med. 28(3):351-8, 2001
                            15. Palmedo H et al: Scintimammography with technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile: results of a prospective European multicentre trial. Eur J Nucl Med. 25(4):375-85, 1998
                            16. Waxman AD: The role of (99m)Tc methoxyisobutylisonitrile in imaging breast cancer. Semin Nucl Med. 27(1):40-54, 1997
                            17. Khalkhali I et al: Prone scintimammography in patients with suspicion of carcinoma of the breast. J Am Coll Surg. 178(5):491-7, 1994
                            18. Waxman AD et al: Thallium scintigraphy in the evaluation of mass abnormalities of the breast. J Nucl Med. 34(1):18-23, 1993
                            Related Anatomy
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                            Related Differential Diagnoses
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                            References
                            Tables

                            Tables

                            KEY FACTS

                            • Imaging

                              • Pathology

                                • Clinical Issues

                                  TERMINOLOGY

                                  • Definitions

                                    • Primary breast cancer
                                      • Ductal cancers (cancers arising from ductal cells)
                                        • In situ: Tumor cells contained within ducts without stromal invasion by tumor cells
                                        • Invasive: Tumor has penetrated ductal epithelium and invaded stroma
                                      • Lobular cancers (cancers arising from lobule cells)
                                        • In situ: Tumor cells contained within lobules without penetration of lobule walls
                                        • Invasive: Tumor cells have invaded stroma

                                  IMAGING

                                  • F-18 FDG PET/CT Findings

                                    • F-18 FDG PEM Findings

                                      • Imaging Recommendations

                                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                          PATHOLOGY

                                          • General Features

                                            • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                                              • Presentation

                                                • Demographics

                                                  DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                  • Consider

                                                    • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                      Selected References

                                                      1. Gillies RJ et al: PET and MRI: Is the whole greater than the sum of its parts? Cancer Res. 76(21):6163-6166, 2016
                                                      2. Fowler AM: A molecular approach to breast imaging. J Nucl Med. 55(2):177-80, 2014
                                                      3. Glass SB et al: Clinical utility of positron emission mammography. Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent). 26(3):314-9, 2013
                                                      4. Kalles V et al: The current status of positron emission mammography in breast cancer diagnosis. Breast Cancer. 20(2):123-30, 2013
                                                      5. Ling CM et al: Breast-specific gamma imaging in the detection of atypical ductal hyperplasia and lobular neoplasia. Acad Radiol. 19(6):661-6, 2012
                                                      6. Hruska CB et al: Molecular breast imaging: use of a dual-head dedicated gamma camera to detect small breast tumors. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 191(6):1805-15, 2008
                                                      7. Berg WA et al: High-resolution fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography with compression ("positron emission mammography") is highly accurate in depicting primary breast cancer. Breast J. 12(4):309-23, 2006
                                                      8. Kumar R et al: Clinicopathologic factors associated with false negative FDG-PET in primary breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 98(3):267-74, 2006
                                                      9. Kumar R et al: Standardized uptake values of normal breast tissue with 2-deoxy-2-[F-18]fluoro-D: -glucose positron emission tomography: variations with age, breast density, and menopausal status. Mol Imaging Biol. 8(6):355-62, 2006
                                                      10. Pelosi E et al: Value of integrated PET/CT for lesion localisation in cancer patients: a comparative study. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 31(7):932-9, 2004
                                                      11. Zangheri B et al: PET/CT and breast cancer. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 31 Suppl 1:S135-42, 2004
                                                      12. Vranjesevic D et al: Relationship between 18F-FDG uptake and breast density in women with normal breast tissue. J Nucl Med. 44(8):1238-42, 2003
                                                      13. Bos R et al: Biologic correlates of (18)fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in human breast cancer measured by positron emission tomography. J Clin Oncol. 20(2):379-87, 2002
                                                      14. Schirrmeister H et al: Fluorine-18 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose PET in the preoperative staging of breast cancer: comparison with the standard staging procedures. Eur J Nucl Med. 28(3):351-8, 2001
                                                      15. Palmedo H et al: Scintimammography with technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile: results of a prospective European multicentre trial. Eur J Nucl Med. 25(4):375-85, 1998
                                                      16. Waxman AD: The role of (99m)Tc methoxyisobutylisonitrile in imaging breast cancer. Semin Nucl Med. 27(1):40-54, 1997
                                                      17. Khalkhali I et al: Prone scintimammography in patients with suspicion of carcinoma of the breast. J Am Coll Surg. 178(5):491-7, 1994
                                                      18. Waxman AD et al: Thallium scintigraphy in the evaluation of mass abnormalities of the breast. J Nucl Med. 34(1):18-23, 1993