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Primary Motor Cortex (Area 4)
Jeffrey S. Anderson, MD, PhD; Jared A. Nielsen, PhD
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Location and Boundaries

  • Location

    • Boundaries

      Function

      • Movement

        • Imagery and Observation

          Structural Connections

          • Input

            • Output

              Functional Connections

              • Coactive Regions

                Area 4-Associated Disorders

                • Disorders

                  • Treatment and Recovery

                    Selected References

                    1. Svoboda K et al: Neural mechanisms of movement planning: motor cortex and beyond. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 49:33-41, 2018
                    2. Kawai R et al: Motor cortex is required for learning but not for executing a motor skill. Neuron. 86(3):800-12, 2015
                    3. Li N et al: A motor cortex circuit for motor planning and movement. Nature. 519(7541):51-6, 2015
                    4. Hétu S et al: The neural network of motor imagery: an ALE meta-analysis. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 37(5):930-49, 2013
                    5. Szameitat AJ et al: Cortical activation during executed, imagined, observed, and passive wrist movements in healthy volunteers and stroke patients. Neuroimage. 62(1):266-80, 2012
                    6. Baudrexel S et al: Resting state fMRI reveals increased subthalamic nucleus-motor cortex connectivity in Parkinson's disease. Neuroimage. 55(4):1728-38, 2011
                    7. Galea JM et al: Dissociating the roles of the cerebellum and motor cortex during adaptive learning: the motor cortex retains what the cerebellum learns. Cereb Cortex. 21(8):1761-70, 2011
                    8. Rehme AK et al: The role of the contralesional motor cortex for motor recovery in the early days after stroke assessed with longitudinal FMRI. Cereb Cortex. 21(4):756-68, 2011
                    9. Diers M et al: Mirrored, imagined and executed movements differentially activate sensorimotor cortex in amputees with and without phantom limb pain. Pain. 149(2):296-304, 2010
                    10. Lindenberg R et al: Bihemispheric brain stimulation facilitates motor recovery in chronic stroke patients. Neurology. 75(24):2176-84, 2010
                    11. Enzinger C et al: Brain activity changes associated with treadmill training after stroke. Stroke. 40(7):2460-7, 2009
                    12. Raposo A et al: Modulation of motor and premotor cortices by actions, action words and action sentences. Neuropsychologia. 47(2):388-96, 2009
                    13. Meier JD et al: Complex organization of human primary motor cortex: a high-resolution fMRI study. J Neurophysiol. 100(4):1800-12, 2008
                    14. Newton JM et al: Reliable assessment of lower limb motor representations with fMRI: use of a novel MR compatible device for real-time monitoring of ankle, knee and hip torques. Neuroimage. 43(1):136-46, 2008
                    15. Graziano MS et al: Mapping behavioral repertoire onto the cortex. Neuron. 56(2):239-51, 2007
                    16. Lotze M et al: Neuroimaging patterns associated with motor control in traumatic brain injury. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 20(1):14-23, 2006
                    17. Mostofsky SH et al: Atypical motor and sensory cortex activation in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study of simple sequential finger tapping. Biol Psychiatry. 59(1):48-56, 2006
                    18. Geyer S et al: Two different areas within the primary motor cortex of man. Nature. 382(6594):805-7, 1996
                    Related Anatomy
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                    Related Differential Diagnoses
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                    References
                    Tables

                    Tables

                    Location and Boundaries

                    • Location

                      • Boundaries

                        Function

                        • Movement

                          • Imagery and Observation

                            Structural Connections

                            • Input

                              • Output

                                Functional Connections

                                • Coactive Regions

                                  Area 4-Associated Disorders

                                  • Disorders

                                    • Treatment and Recovery

                                      Selected References

                                      1. Svoboda K et al: Neural mechanisms of movement planning: motor cortex and beyond. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 49:33-41, 2018
                                      2. Kawai R et al: Motor cortex is required for learning but not for executing a motor skill. Neuron. 86(3):800-12, 2015
                                      3. Li N et al: A motor cortex circuit for motor planning and movement. Nature. 519(7541):51-6, 2015
                                      4. Hétu S et al: The neural network of motor imagery: an ALE meta-analysis. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 37(5):930-49, 2013
                                      5. Szameitat AJ et al: Cortical activation during executed, imagined, observed, and passive wrist movements in healthy volunteers and stroke patients. Neuroimage. 62(1):266-80, 2012
                                      6. Baudrexel S et al: Resting state fMRI reveals increased subthalamic nucleus-motor cortex connectivity in Parkinson's disease. Neuroimage. 55(4):1728-38, 2011
                                      7. Galea JM et al: Dissociating the roles of the cerebellum and motor cortex during adaptive learning: the motor cortex retains what the cerebellum learns. Cereb Cortex. 21(8):1761-70, 2011
                                      8. Rehme AK et al: The role of the contralesional motor cortex for motor recovery in the early days after stroke assessed with longitudinal FMRI. Cereb Cortex. 21(4):756-68, 2011
                                      9. Diers M et al: Mirrored, imagined and executed movements differentially activate sensorimotor cortex in amputees with and without phantom limb pain. Pain. 149(2):296-304, 2010
                                      10. Lindenberg R et al: Bihemispheric brain stimulation facilitates motor recovery in chronic stroke patients. Neurology. 75(24):2176-84, 2010
                                      11. Enzinger C et al: Brain activity changes associated with treadmill training after stroke. Stroke. 40(7):2460-7, 2009
                                      12. Raposo A et al: Modulation of motor and premotor cortices by actions, action words and action sentences. Neuropsychologia. 47(2):388-96, 2009
                                      13. Meier JD et al: Complex organization of human primary motor cortex: a high-resolution fMRI study. J Neurophysiol. 100(4):1800-12, 2008
                                      14. Newton JM et al: Reliable assessment of lower limb motor representations with fMRI: use of a novel MR compatible device for real-time monitoring of ankle, knee and hip torques. Neuroimage. 43(1):136-46, 2008
                                      15. Graziano MS et al: Mapping behavioral repertoire onto the cortex. Neuron. 56(2):239-51, 2007
                                      16. Lotze M et al: Neuroimaging patterns associated with motor control in traumatic brain injury. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 20(1):14-23, 2006
                                      17. Mostofsky SH et al: Atypical motor and sensory cortex activation in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study of simple sequential finger tapping. Biol Psychiatry. 59(1):48-56, 2006
                                      18. Geyer S et al: Two different areas within the primary motor cortex of man. Nature. 382(6594):805-7, 1996