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Primary Somatosensory Cortex (Areas 1, 2, 3)
Jeffrey S. Anderson, MD, PhD; Jared A. Nielsen, PhD
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Location and Boundaries

  • Location

    • Boundaries

      Function

      • Somatosensation

        Structural Connections

        • Cortical Connections

          • Subcortical Connections

            Functional Connections

            • Coactive Regions

              • Associated Literature Keywords (NeuroSynth)

                Areas 1-, 2-, 3-Associated Conditions

                • Sensory Loss, Dysesthesia, Paresthesias

                  • Phantom Limb Syndrome

                    Selected References

                    1. Gallo S et al: The causal role of the somatosensory cortex in prosocial behaviour. Elife. 7, 2018
                    2. Legon W et al: Transcranial focused ultrasound modulates the activity of primary somatosensory cortex in humans. Nat Neurosci. 17(2):322-9, 2014
                    3. Martuzzi R et al: Human finger somatotopy in areas 3b, 1, and 2: a 7T fMRI study using a natural stimulus. Hum Brain Mapp. 35(1):213-26, 2014
                    4. Sánchez-Panchuelo RM et al: Regional structural differences across functionally parcellated Brodmann areas of human primary somatosensory cortex. Neuroimage. 93 Pt 2:221-30, 2014
                    5. Duerden EG et al: Localization of pain-related brain activation: a meta-analysis of neuroimaging data. Hum Brain Mapp. 34(1):109-49, 2013
                    6. Kuehn E et al: Judging roughness by sight-A 7-tesla fMRI study on responsivity of the primary somatosensory cortex during observed touch of self and others. Hum Brain Mapp. 34(8):1882-95, 2013
                    7. Moore CI et al: Neocortical correlates of vibrotactile detection in humans. J Cogn Neurosci. 25(1):49-61, 2013
                    8. Vierck CJ et al: Role of primary somatosensory cortex in the coding of pain. Pain. 154(3):334-44, 2013
                    9. Bao R et al: Within-limb somatotopic organization in human SI and parietal operculum for the leg: an fMRI study. Brain Res. 1445:30-9, 2012
                    10. Sanchez-Panchuelo RM et al: Within-digit functional parcellation of Brodmann areas of the human primary somatosensory cortex using functional magnetic resonance imaging at 7 tesla. J Neurosci. 32(45):15815-22, 2012
                    11. Van Essen DC et al: Parcellations and hemispheric asymmetries of human cerebral cortex analyzed on surface-based atlases. Cereb Cortex. 22(10):2241-62, 2012
                    12. Juenger H et al: Early determination of somatosensory cortex in the human brain. Cereb Cortex. 21(8):1827-31, 2011
                    13. Langner R et al: Modality-specific perceptual expectations selectively modulate baseline activity in auditory, somatosensory, and visual cortices. Cereb Cortex. 21(12):2850-62, 2011
                    14. Marcus DS et al: Informatics and data mining tools and strategies for the human connectome project. Front Neuroinform. 5:4, 2011
                    15. Schweisfurth MA et al: Functional MRI indicates consistent intra-digit topographic maps in the little but not the index finger within the human primary somatosensory cortex. Neuroimage. 56(4):2138-43, 2011
                    16. Simões-Franklin C et al: Active and passive touch differentially activate somatosensory cortex in texture perception. Hum Brain Mapp. 32(7):1067-80, 2011
                    17. Stringer EA et al: Differentiation of somatosensory cortices by high-resolution fMRI at 7 T. Neuroimage. 54(2):1012-20, 2011
                    18. Serino A et al: Touch and the body. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 34(2):224-36, 2010
                    19. Simonyan K et al: Abnormal activation of the primary somatosensory cortex in spasmodic dysphonia: an fMRI study. Cereb Cortex. 20(11):2749-59, 2010
                    20. Roy A et al: Synchrony: a neural correlate of somatosensory attention. J Neurophysiol. 98(3):1645-61, 2007
                    21. Blankenburg F et al: Evidence for a rostral-to-caudal somatotopic organization in human primary somatosensory cortex with mirror-reversal in areas 3b and 1. Cereb Cortex. 13(9):987-93, 2003
                    22. Grefkes C et al: Human somatosensory area 2: observer-independent cytoarchitectonic mapping, interindividual variability, and population map. Neuroimage. 14(3):617-31, 2001
                    23. Geyer S et al: Areas 3a, 3b, and 1 of human primary somatosensory cortex. Neuroimage. 10(1):63-83, 1999
                    Related Anatomy
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                    Related Differential Diagnoses
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                    References
                    Tables

                    Tables

                    Location and Boundaries

                    • Location

                      • Boundaries

                        Function

                        • Somatosensation

                          Structural Connections

                          • Cortical Connections

                            • Subcortical Connections

                              Functional Connections

                              • Coactive Regions

                                • Associated Literature Keywords (NeuroSynth)

                                  Areas 1-, 2-, 3-Associated Conditions

                                  • Sensory Loss, Dysesthesia, Paresthesias

                                    • Phantom Limb Syndrome

                                      Selected References

                                      1. Gallo S et al: The causal role of the somatosensory cortex in prosocial behaviour. Elife. 7, 2018
                                      2. Legon W et al: Transcranial focused ultrasound modulates the activity of primary somatosensory cortex in humans. Nat Neurosci. 17(2):322-9, 2014
                                      3. Martuzzi R et al: Human finger somatotopy in areas 3b, 1, and 2: a 7T fMRI study using a natural stimulus. Hum Brain Mapp. 35(1):213-26, 2014
                                      4. Sánchez-Panchuelo RM et al: Regional structural differences across functionally parcellated Brodmann areas of human primary somatosensory cortex. Neuroimage. 93 Pt 2:221-30, 2014
                                      5. Duerden EG et al: Localization of pain-related brain activation: a meta-analysis of neuroimaging data. Hum Brain Mapp. 34(1):109-49, 2013
                                      6. Kuehn E et al: Judging roughness by sight-A 7-tesla fMRI study on responsivity of the primary somatosensory cortex during observed touch of self and others. Hum Brain Mapp. 34(8):1882-95, 2013
                                      7. Moore CI et al: Neocortical correlates of vibrotactile detection in humans. J Cogn Neurosci. 25(1):49-61, 2013
                                      8. Vierck CJ et al: Role of primary somatosensory cortex in the coding of pain. Pain. 154(3):334-44, 2013
                                      9. Bao R et al: Within-limb somatotopic organization in human SI and parietal operculum for the leg: an fMRI study. Brain Res. 1445:30-9, 2012
                                      10. Sanchez-Panchuelo RM et al: Within-digit functional parcellation of Brodmann areas of the human primary somatosensory cortex using functional magnetic resonance imaging at 7 tesla. J Neurosci. 32(45):15815-22, 2012
                                      11. Van Essen DC et al: Parcellations and hemispheric asymmetries of human cerebral cortex analyzed on surface-based atlases. Cereb Cortex. 22(10):2241-62, 2012
                                      12. Juenger H et al: Early determination of somatosensory cortex in the human brain. Cereb Cortex. 21(8):1827-31, 2011
                                      13. Langner R et al: Modality-specific perceptual expectations selectively modulate baseline activity in auditory, somatosensory, and visual cortices. Cereb Cortex. 21(12):2850-62, 2011
                                      14. Marcus DS et al: Informatics and data mining tools and strategies for the human connectome project. Front Neuroinform. 5:4, 2011
                                      15. Schweisfurth MA et al: Functional MRI indicates consistent intra-digit topographic maps in the little but not the index finger within the human primary somatosensory cortex. Neuroimage. 56(4):2138-43, 2011
                                      16. Simões-Franklin C et al: Active and passive touch differentially activate somatosensory cortex in texture perception. Hum Brain Mapp. 32(7):1067-80, 2011
                                      17. Stringer EA et al: Differentiation of somatosensory cortices by high-resolution fMRI at 7 T. Neuroimage. 54(2):1012-20, 2011
                                      18. Serino A et al: Touch and the body. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 34(2):224-36, 2010
                                      19. Simonyan K et al: Abnormal activation of the primary somatosensory cortex in spasmodic dysphonia: an fMRI study. Cereb Cortex. 20(11):2749-59, 2010
                                      20. Roy A et al: Synchrony: a neural correlate of somatosensory attention. J Neurophysiol. 98(3):1645-61, 2007
                                      21. Blankenburg F et al: Evidence for a rostral-to-caudal somatotopic organization in human primary somatosensory cortex with mirror-reversal in areas 3b and 1. Cereb Cortex. 13(9):987-93, 2003
                                      22. Grefkes C et al: Human somatosensory area 2: observer-independent cytoarchitectonic mapping, interindividual variability, and population map. Neuroimage. 14(3):617-31, 2001
                                      23. Geyer S et al: Areas 3a, 3b, and 1 of human primary somatosensory cortex. Neuroimage. 10(1):63-83, 1999