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Proatlas Segmentation Anomalies
Kevin R. Moore, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            • Diagnostic Checklist

              TERMINOLOGY

              • Synonyms

                • 4th occipital sclerotome anomalies
              • Definitions

                • Proatlas derived from 4th occipital sclerotome in humans
                  • Usually fuses with 3 upper occipital sclerotomes to form occipital bone, foramen magnum
                  • If normal sclerotomal fusion fails, proatlas remnants → craniovertebral junction (CVJ) proatlantal segmentation anomalies

              IMAGING

              • General Features

                • Radiographic Findings

                  • CT Findings

                    • MR Findings

                      • Imaging Recommendations

                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                          PATHOLOGY

                          • General Features

                            • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                              • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                • Presentation

                                  • Demographics

                                    • Natural History & Prognosis

                                      • Treatment

                                        DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                        • Consider

                                          Selected References

                                          1. Muhleman M et al: The proatlas: a comprehensive review with clinical implications. Childs Nerv Syst. 28(3):349-56, 2012
                                          2. Garg K et al: Chiari III malformation with proatlas abnormality. Pediatr Neurosurg. 47(4):295-8, 2011
                                          3. Pang D et al: Embryology and bony malformations of the craniovertebral junction. Childs Nerv Syst. 27(4):523-64, 2011
                                          4. Arvin B et al: Os odontoideum: etiology and surgical management. Neurosurgery. 66(3 Suppl):22-31, 2010
                                          5. Goel A et al: Unusual bone formation in the anterior rim of foramen magnum: cause, effect and treatment. Eur Spine J. 19 Suppl 2:S162-4, 2010
                                          6. Xu S et al: Two patients with proatlas segmentation malformation. J Clin Neurosci. 17(5):647-8, 2010
                                          7. Menezes AH et al: Remnants of occipital vertebrae: proatlas segmentation abnormalities. Neurosurgery. 64(5):945-53; discussion 954, 2009
                                          8. Menezes AH: Craniocervical developmental anatomy and its implications. Childs Nerv Syst. 24(10):1109-22, 2008
                                          9. Smoker WR et al: Imaging the craniocervical junction. Childs Nerv Syst. 24(10):1123-45, 2008
                                          10. Klimo P Jr et al: Congenital anomalies of the cervical spine. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 18(3):463-78, 2007
                                          Related Anatomy
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                                          Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                          References
                                          Tables

                                          Tables

                                          KEY FACTS

                                          • Terminology

                                            • Imaging

                                              • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                • Pathology

                                                  • Clinical Issues

                                                    • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                      TERMINOLOGY

                                                      • Synonyms

                                                        • 4th occipital sclerotome anomalies
                                                      • Definitions

                                                        • Proatlas derived from 4th occipital sclerotome in humans
                                                          • Usually fuses with 3 upper occipital sclerotomes to form occipital bone, foramen magnum
                                                          • If normal sclerotomal fusion fails, proatlas remnants → craniovertebral junction (CVJ) proatlantal segmentation anomalies

                                                      IMAGING

                                                      • General Features

                                                        • Radiographic Findings

                                                          • CT Findings

                                                            • MR Findings

                                                              • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                  PATHOLOGY

                                                                  • General Features

                                                                    • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                      • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                        CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                        • Presentation

                                                                          • Demographics

                                                                            • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                              • Treatment

                                                                                DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                • Consider

                                                                                  Selected References

                                                                                  1. Muhleman M et al: The proatlas: a comprehensive review with clinical implications. Childs Nerv Syst. 28(3):349-56, 2012
                                                                                  2. Garg K et al: Chiari III malformation with proatlas abnormality. Pediatr Neurosurg. 47(4):295-8, 2011
                                                                                  3. Pang D et al: Embryology and bony malformations of the craniovertebral junction. Childs Nerv Syst. 27(4):523-64, 2011
                                                                                  4. Arvin B et al: Os odontoideum: etiology and surgical management. Neurosurgery. 66(3 Suppl):22-31, 2010
                                                                                  5. Goel A et al: Unusual bone formation in the anterior rim of foramen magnum: cause, effect and treatment. Eur Spine J. 19 Suppl 2:S162-4, 2010
                                                                                  6. Xu S et al: Two patients with proatlas segmentation malformation. J Clin Neurosci. 17(5):647-8, 2010
                                                                                  7. Menezes AH et al: Remnants of occipital vertebrae: proatlas segmentation abnormalities. Neurosurgery. 64(5):945-53; discussion 954, 2009
                                                                                  8. Menezes AH: Craniocervical developmental anatomy and its implications. Childs Nerv Syst. 24(10):1109-22, 2008
                                                                                  9. Smoker WR et al: Imaging the craniocervical junction. Childs Nerv Syst. 24(10):1123-45, 2008
                                                                                  10. Klimo P Jr et al: Congenital anomalies of the cervical spine. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 18(3):463-78, 2007