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Prostate Cancer
Brad Perry, MD; Paige Bennett, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        TERMINOLOGY

        • Definitions

          • Prostate cancer
            • > 95% is adenocarcinoma, characterized by small, infiltrating glandular tissue with prominent nucleoli

        IMAGING

        • F-18 Fluciclovine PET/CT Findings

          • F-18 FDG PET/CT Findings

            • F-18 NaF PET/CT Bone Scan Findings

              • Ga-68 PSMA Ligand Findings

                • MR Findings

                  DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                    PATHOLOGY

                    • General Features

                      • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                        CLINICAL ISSUES

                        • Presentation

                          • Demographics

                            • Treatment

                              DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                              • Consider

                                Selected References

                                1. Songmen S et al: Axumin positron emission tomography: Novel agent for prostate cancer biochemical recurrence. J Clin Imaging Sci. 9:49, 2019
                                2. Uprimny C et al: 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT in primary staging of prostate cancer: PSA and Gleason score predict the intensity of tracer accumulation in the primary tumour. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. ePub, 2017
                                3. Harmon S et al: MO-AB-BRA-05: [18F]NaF PET/CT imaging biomarkers in metastatic prostate cancer. Med Phys. 43(6):3691, 2016
                                4. Kratochwil C et al: Current status of prostate-specific membrane antigen targeting in nuclear medicine: clinical translation of chelator containing prostate-specific membrane antigen ligands into diagnostics and therapy for prostate cancer. Semin Nucl Med. 46(5):405-18, 2016
                                5. Rauscher I et al: (68)Ga-PSMA ligand PET/CT in patients with prostate cancer: How we review and report. Cancer Imaging. 16(1):14, 2016
                                6. Nanni C et al: 18F-Fluciclovine PET/CT for the detection of prostate cancer relapse: A comparison to 11C-choline PET/CT. Clin Nucl Med. 40(8):e386-91, 2015
                                7. Schuster DM et al: Anti-1-amino-3-18F-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid: physiologic uptake patterns, incidental findings, and variants that may simulate disease. J Nucl Med. 55(12):1986-92, 2014
                                8. Parker C et al: Alpha emitter radium-223 and survival in metastatic prostate cancer. N Engl J Med. 369(3):213-23, 2013
                                9. Mackiewicz-Wysocka M et al: Progress in the treatment of bone metastases in cancer patients. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 21(6):785-95, 2012
                                10. Saad F et al: The current role of circulating tumor cells in the diagnosis and management of bone metastases in advanced prostate cancer. Future Oncol. 8(3):321-31, 2012
                                11. Jadvar H: Prostate cancer: PET with 18F-FDG, 18F- or 11C-acetate, and 18F- or 11C-choline. J Nucl Med. 52(1):81-9, 2011
                                12. Ibrahim T et al: Pathogenesis of osteoblastic bone metastases from prostate cancer. Cancer. 116(6):1406-18, 2010
                                13. Saylor PJ et al: Bone health and prostate cancer. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 13(1):20-7, 2010
                                14. Messiou C et al: Imaging metastatic bone disease from carcinoma of the prostate. Br J Cancer. 101(8):1225-32, 2009
                                15. Logothetis CJ et al: Understanding the biology of bone metastases: key to the effective treatment of prostate cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 14(6):1599-602, 2008
                                16. Tu SM et al: Current trials using bone-targeting agents in prostate cancer. Cancer J. 14(1):35-9, 2008
                                17. Storey JA et al: Bone metastases in prostate cancer: a targeted approach. Curr Opin Oncol. 19(3):254-8, 2007
                                18. Saad F et al: Natural history and treatment of bone complications in prostate cancer. Eur Urol. 49(3):429-40, 2006
                                Related Anatomy
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                                Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                References
                                Tables

                                Tables

                                KEY FACTS

                                • Terminology

                                  • Imaging

                                    • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                      TERMINOLOGY

                                      • Definitions

                                        • Prostate cancer
                                          • > 95% is adenocarcinoma, characterized by small, infiltrating glandular tissue with prominent nucleoli

                                      IMAGING

                                      • F-18 Fluciclovine PET/CT Findings

                                        • F-18 FDG PET/CT Findings

                                          • F-18 NaF PET/CT Bone Scan Findings

                                            • Ga-68 PSMA Ligand Findings

                                              • MR Findings

                                                DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                  PATHOLOGY

                                                  • General Features

                                                    • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                      CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                      • Presentation

                                                        • Demographics

                                                          • Treatment

                                                            DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                            • Consider

                                                              Selected References

                                                              1. Songmen S et al: Axumin positron emission tomography: Novel agent for prostate cancer biochemical recurrence. J Clin Imaging Sci. 9:49, 2019
                                                              2. Uprimny C et al: 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT in primary staging of prostate cancer: PSA and Gleason score predict the intensity of tracer accumulation in the primary tumour. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. ePub, 2017
                                                              3. Harmon S et al: MO-AB-BRA-05: [18F]NaF PET/CT imaging biomarkers in metastatic prostate cancer. Med Phys. 43(6):3691, 2016
                                                              4. Kratochwil C et al: Current status of prostate-specific membrane antigen targeting in nuclear medicine: clinical translation of chelator containing prostate-specific membrane antigen ligands into diagnostics and therapy for prostate cancer. Semin Nucl Med. 46(5):405-18, 2016
                                                              5. Rauscher I et al: (68)Ga-PSMA ligand PET/CT in patients with prostate cancer: How we review and report. Cancer Imaging. 16(1):14, 2016
                                                              6. Nanni C et al: 18F-Fluciclovine PET/CT for the detection of prostate cancer relapse: A comparison to 11C-choline PET/CT. Clin Nucl Med. 40(8):e386-91, 2015
                                                              7. Schuster DM et al: Anti-1-amino-3-18F-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid: physiologic uptake patterns, incidental findings, and variants that may simulate disease. J Nucl Med. 55(12):1986-92, 2014
                                                              8. Parker C et al: Alpha emitter radium-223 and survival in metastatic prostate cancer. N Engl J Med. 369(3):213-23, 2013
                                                              9. Mackiewicz-Wysocka M et al: Progress in the treatment of bone metastases in cancer patients. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 21(6):785-95, 2012
                                                              10. Saad F et al: The current role of circulating tumor cells in the diagnosis and management of bone metastases in advanced prostate cancer. Future Oncol. 8(3):321-31, 2012
                                                              11. Jadvar H: Prostate cancer: PET with 18F-FDG, 18F- or 11C-acetate, and 18F- or 11C-choline. J Nucl Med. 52(1):81-9, 2011
                                                              12. Ibrahim T et al: Pathogenesis of osteoblastic bone metastases from prostate cancer. Cancer. 116(6):1406-18, 2010
                                                              13. Saylor PJ et al: Bone health and prostate cancer. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 13(1):20-7, 2010
                                                              14. Messiou C et al: Imaging metastatic bone disease from carcinoma of the prostate. Br J Cancer. 101(8):1225-32, 2009
                                                              15. Logothetis CJ et al: Understanding the biology of bone metastases: key to the effective treatment of prostate cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 14(6):1599-602, 2008
                                                              16. Tu SM et al: Current trials using bone-targeting agents in prostate cancer. Cancer J. 14(1):35-9, 2008
                                                              17. Storey JA et al: Bone metastases in prostate cancer: a targeted approach. Curr Opin Oncol. 19(3):254-8, 2007
                                                              18. Saad F et al: Natural history and treatment of bone complications in prostate cancer. Eur Urol. 49(3):429-40, 2006