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Prostate Carcinoma
Alessandro Furlan, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Imaging

    • Top Differential Diagnoses

      • Pathology

        • Clinical Issues

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Synonyms

            • Prostate cancer (PC)
          • Definitions

            • Malignancy of prostate gland
            • > 95% of tumors are adenocarcinoma

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • Ultrasonographic Findings

              • CT Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                    • Imaging Recommendations

                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        PATHOLOGY

                        • General Features

                          • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                            • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                              • Presentation

                                • Demographics

                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                    • Treatment

                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                      • Consider

                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                          • Reporting Tips

                                            Selected References

                                            1. Bomers JG et al: Standardization of multiparametric prostate MR imaging using PI-RADS. Biomed Res Int. 2014:431680, 2014
                                            2. de Rooij M et al: Accuracy of multiparametric MRI for prostate cancer detection: a meta-analysis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 202(2):343-51, 2014
                                            3. Hedgire SS et al: Interpretation and reporting multiparametric prostate MRI: a primer for residents and novices. Abdom Imaging. 39(5):1036-51, 2014
                                            4. Heidenreich A et al: EAU guidelines on prostate cancer. part 1: screening, diagnosis, and local treatment with curative intent-update 2013. Eur Urol. 65(1):124-37, 2014
                                            5. Carter HB et al: Early detection of prostate cancer: AUA Guideline. J Urol. 190(2):419-26, 2013
                                            6. Hoeks CM et al: Transition zone prostate cancer: detection and localization with 3-T multiparametric MR imaging. Radiology. 266(1):207-17, 2013
                                            7. Jadvar H: Imaging evaluation of prostate cancer with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT: utility and limitations. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 40 Suppl 1:S5-10, 2013
                                            8. Murphy G et al: The expanding role of MRI in prostate cancer. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 201(6):1229-38, 2013
                                            9. Rosenkrantz AB et al: Prostate cancer localization using multiparametric MR imaging: comparison of Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) and Likert scales. Radiology. 269(2):482-92, 2013
                                            10. Umbehr MH et al: The role of 11C-choline and 18F-fluorocholine positron emission tomography (PET) and PET/CT in prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur Urol. 64(1):106-17, 2013
                                            11. Barentsz JO et al: ESUR prostate MR guidelines 2012. Eur Radiol. 22(4):746-57, 2012
                                            12. Kobus T et al: Prostate cancer aggressiveness: in vivo assessment of MR spectroscopy and diffusion-weighted imaging at 3 T. Radiology. 265(2):457-67, 2012
                                            13. Talab SS et al: Prostate cancer imaging: what the urologist wants to know. Radiol Clin North Am. 50(6):1015-41, 2012
                                            14. Verma S et al: Overview of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI in prostate cancer diagnosis and management. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 198(6):1277-88, 2012
                                            15. Wu LM et al: The clinical value of diffusion-weighted imaging in combination with T2-weighted imaging in diagnosing prostate carcinoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 199(1):103-10, 2012
                                            16. Hoeks CM et al: Prostate cancer: multiparametric MR imaging for detection, localization, and staging. Radiology. 261(1):46-66, 2011
                                            17. Tabatabaei S et al: Prostate cancer imaging: what surgeons, radiation oncologists, and medical oncologists want to know. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 196(6):1263-6, 2011
                                            18. Verma S et al: A clinically relevant approach to imaging prostate cancer: review. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 196(3 Suppl):S1-10 Quiz S11-4, 2011
                                            19. Kelloff GJ et al: Challenges in clinical prostate cancer: role of imaging. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 192(6):1455-70, 2009
                                            20. Turkbey B et al: Imaging localized prostate cancer: current approaches and new developments. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 192(6):1471-80, 2009
                                            21. Tamada T et al: Prostate cancer: relationships between postbiopsy hemorrhage and tumor detectability at MR diagnosis. Radiology. 248(2):531-9, 2008
                                            22. Hricak H et al: Imaging prostate cancer: a multidisciplinary perspective. Radiology. 2007 Apr;243(1):28-53. Review. Erratum in: Radiology. 245(1):302, 2007
                                            23. Kundra V et al: Imaging in oncology from the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center: diagnosis, staging, and surveillance of prostate cancer. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 189(4):830-44, 2007
                                            24. Akin O et al: Transition zone prostate cancers: features, detection, localization, and staging at endorectal MR imaging. Radiology. 239(3):784-92, 2006
                                            25. Edge S, Byrd DR, Compton CC, Fritz AG, Greene FL, Trotti A. AJCC Cancer Staging Manual, 7th ed. 2010. Springer.
                                            26. American College of Radiology. MR Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System version 2.0. Accessed January 2015
                                            Related Anatomy
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                                            Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                            References
                                            Tables

                                            Tables

                                            KEY FACTS

                                            • Imaging

                                              • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                • Pathology

                                                  • Clinical Issues

                                                    TERMINOLOGY

                                                    • Synonyms

                                                      • Prostate cancer (PC)
                                                    • Definitions

                                                      • Malignancy of prostate gland
                                                      • > 95% of tumors are adenocarcinoma

                                                    IMAGING

                                                    • General Features

                                                      • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                        • CT Findings

                                                          • MR Findings

                                                            • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                              • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                  PATHOLOGY

                                                                  • General Features

                                                                    • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                      • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                        CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                        • Presentation

                                                                          • Demographics

                                                                            • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                              • Treatment

                                                                                DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                • Consider

                                                                                  • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                    • Reporting Tips

                                                                                      Selected References

                                                                                      1. Bomers JG et al: Standardization of multiparametric prostate MR imaging using PI-RADS. Biomed Res Int. 2014:431680, 2014
                                                                                      2. de Rooij M et al: Accuracy of multiparametric MRI for prostate cancer detection: a meta-analysis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 202(2):343-51, 2014
                                                                                      3. Hedgire SS et al: Interpretation and reporting multiparametric prostate MRI: a primer for residents and novices. Abdom Imaging. 39(5):1036-51, 2014
                                                                                      4. Heidenreich A et al: EAU guidelines on prostate cancer. part 1: screening, diagnosis, and local treatment with curative intent-update 2013. Eur Urol. 65(1):124-37, 2014
                                                                                      5. Carter HB et al: Early detection of prostate cancer: AUA Guideline. J Urol. 190(2):419-26, 2013
                                                                                      6. Hoeks CM et al: Transition zone prostate cancer: detection and localization with 3-T multiparametric MR imaging. Radiology. 266(1):207-17, 2013
                                                                                      7. Jadvar H: Imaging evaluation of prostate cancer with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT: utility and limitations. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 40 Suppl 1:S5-10, 2013
                                                                                      8. Murphy G et al: The expanding role of MRI in prostate cancer. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 201(6):1229-38, 2013
                                                                                      9. Rosenkrantz AB et al: Prostate cancer localization using multiparametric MR imaging: comparison of Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) and Likert scales. Radiology. 269(2):482-92, 2013
                                                                                      10. Umbehr MH et al: The role of 11C-choline and 18F-fluorocholine positron emission tomography (PET) and PET/CT in prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur Urol. 64(1):106-17, 2013
                                                                                      11. Barentsz JO et al: ESUR prostate MR guidelines 2012. Eur Radiol. 22(4):746-57, 2012
                                                                                      12. Kobus T et al: Prostate cancer aggressiveness: in vivo assessment of MR spectroscopy and diffusion-weighted imaging at 3 T. Radiology. 265(2):457-67, 2012
                                                                                      13. Talab SS et al: Prostate cancer imaging: what the urologist wants to know. Radiol Clin North Am. 50(6):1015-41, 2012
                                                                                      14. Verma S et al: Overview of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI in prostate cancer diagnosis and management. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 198(6):1277-88, 2012
                                                                                      15. Wu LM et al: The clinical value of diffusion-weighted imaging in combination with T2-weighted imaging in diagnosing prostate carcinoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 199(1):103-10, 2012
                                                                                      16. Hoeks CM et al: Prostate cancer: multiparametric MR imaging for detection, localization, and staging. Radiology. 261(1):46-66, 2011
                                                                                      17. Tabatabaei S et al: Prostate cancer imaging: what surgeons, radiation oncologists, and medical oncologists want to know. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 196(6):1263-6, 2011
                                                                                      18. Verma S et al: A clinically relevant approach to imaging prostate cancer: review. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 196(3 Suppl):S1-10 Quiz S11-4, 2011
                                                                                      19. Kelloff GJ et al: Challenges in clinical prostate cancer: role of imaging. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 192(6):1455-70, 2009
                                                                                      20. Turkbey B et al: Imaging localized prostate cancer: current approaches and new developments. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 192(6):1471-80, 2009
                                                                                      21. Tamada T et al: Prostate cancer: relationships between postbiopsy hemorrhage and tumor detectability at MR diagnosis. Radiology. 248(2):531-9, 2008
                                                                                      22. Hricak H et al: Imaging prostate cancer: a multidisciplinary perspective. Radiology. 2007 Apr;243(1):28-53. Review. Erratum in: Radiology. 245(1):302, 2007
                                                                                      23. Kundra V et al: Imaging in oncology from the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center: diagnosis, staging, and surveillance of prostate cancer. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 189(4):830-44, 2007
                                                                                      24. Akin O et al: Transition zone prostate cancers: features, detection, localization, and staging at endorectal MR imaging. Radiology. 239(3):784-92, 2006
                                                                                      25. Edge S, Byrd DR, Compton CC, Fritz AG, Greene FL, Trotti A. AJCC Cancer Staging Manual, 7th ed. 2010. Springer.
                                                                                      26. American College of Radiology. MR Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System version 2.0. Accessed January 2015