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Prostate Carcinoma
Alessandro Furlan, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Imaging

    • Top Differential Diagnoses

      • Pathology

        • Clinical Issues

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Abbreviations

            • Prostate carcinoma (PC)
          • Definitions

            • Malignancy of prostate gland
            • > 95% of tumors are adenocarcinoma

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • Ultrasonographic Findings

              • CT Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                    • Imaging Recommendations

                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        PATHOLOGY

                        • General Features

                          • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                            • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                              • Presentation

                                • Demographics

                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                    • Treatment

                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                      • Consider

                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                          Selected References

                                          1. Marcus C et al: Fluorine-18-Labeled Fluciclovine PET/CT in Primary and Biochemical Recurrent Prostate Cancer Management. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1-10, 2020
                                          2. Walker SM et al: What You Need to Know Before Reading Multiparametric MRI for Prostate Cancer. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 214(6):1211-1219, 2020
                                          3. Padhani AR et al: Prostate Imaging-Reporting and Data System Steering Committee: PI-RADS v2 Status Update and Future Directions. Eur Urol. 75(3):385-396, 2019
                                          4. Ponnatapura J et al: The "hemorrhage exclusion" sign. Abdom Radiol (NY). 44(10):3490-3491, 2019
                                          5. Turkbey B et al: Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System Version 2.1: 2019 Update of Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System Version 2. Eur Urol. ePub, 2019
                                          6. American College of Radiology: Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System, Version 2.1. https://www.acr.org/-/media/ACR/Files/RADS/PI-RADS/PIRADS-V2-1.pdf. ACR, 2019
                                          7. Fulgham PF et al: Standard Operating Procedure for Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Diagnosis, Staging and Management of Prostate Cancer. A Collaborative Initiative by the American Urological Association and the Society of Abdominal Radiology Prostate Disease Focus Panel. https://www.auanet.org/guidelines/mri-of-the-prostate-sop. AUA, 2019
                                          8. Hope TA et al: Imaging Prostate Cancer With Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen PET/CT and PET/MRI: Current and Future Applications. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 211(2):286-294, 2018
                                          9. Weinreb JC et al: PI-RADS Prostate Imaging - Reporting and Data System: 2015, Version 2. Eur Urol. 69(1):16-40, 2016
                                          10. Carter HB et al: Early detection of prostate cancer: AUA Guideline. J Urol. 190(2):419-26, 2013
                                          11. Hoeks CM et al: Transition zone prostate cancer: detection and localization with 3-T multiparametric MR imaging. Radiology. 266(1):207-17, 2013
                                          12. Rosenkrantz AB et al: Prostate cancer localization using multiparametric MR imaging: comparison of Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) and Likert scales. Radiology. 269(2):482-92, 2013
                                          13. Kobus T et al: Prostate cancer aggressiveness: in vivo assessment of MR spectroscopy and diffusion-weighted imaging at 3 T. Radiology. 265(2):457-67, 2012
                                          14. Talab SS et al: Prostate cancer imaging: what the urologist wants to know. Radiol Clin North Am. 50(6):1015-41, 2012
                                          15. Verma S et al: Overview of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI in prostate cancer diagnosis and management. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 198(6):1277-88, 2012
                                          16. Wu LM et al: The clinical value of diffusion-weighted imaging in combination with T2-weighted imaging in diagnosing prostate carcinoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 199(1):103-10, 2012
                                          17. Akin O et al: Transition zone prostate cancers: features, detection, localization, and staging at endorectal MR imaging. Radiology. 239(3):784-92, 2006
                                          Related Anatomy
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                                          Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                          References
                                          Tables

                                          Tables

                                          KEY FACTS

                                          • Imaging

                                            • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                              • Pathology

                                                • Clinical Issues

                                                  TERMINOLOGY

                                                  • Abbreviations

                                                    • Prostate carcinoma (PC)
                                                  • Definitions

                                                    • Malignancy of prostate gland
                                                    • > 95% of tumors are adenocarcinoma

                                                  IMAGING

                                                  • General Features

                                                    • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                      • CT Findings

                                                        • MR Findings

                                                          • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                            • Imaging Recommendations

                                                              DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                PATHOLOGY

                                                                • General Features

                                                                  • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                    • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                      CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                      • Presentation

                                                                        • Demographics

                                                                          • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                            • Treatment

                                                                              DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                              • Consider

                                                                                • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                  Selected References

                                                                                  1. Marcus C et al: Fluorine-18-Labeled Fluciclovine PET/CT in Primary and Biochemical Recurrent Prostate Cancer Management. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1-10, 2020
                                                                                  2. Walker SM et al: What You Need to Know Before Reading Multiparametric MRI for Prostate Cancer. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 214(6):1211-1219, 2020
                                                                                  3. Padhani AR et al: Prostate Imaging-Reporting and Data System Steering Committee: PI-RADS v2 Status Update and Future Directions. Eur Urol. 75(3):385-396, 2019
                                                                                  4. Ponnatapura J et al: The "hemorrhage exclusion" sign. Abdom Radiol (NY). 44(10):3490-3491, 2019
                                                                                  5. Turkbey B et al: Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System Version 2.1: 2019 Update of Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System Version 2. Eur Urol. ePub, 2019
                                                                                  6. American College of Radiology: Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System, Version 2.1. https://www.acr.org/-/media/ACR/Files/RADS/PI-RADS/PIRADS-V2-1.pdf. ACR, 2019
                                                                                  7. Fulgham PF et al: Standard Operating Procedure for Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Diagnosis, Staging and Management of Prostate Cancer. A Collaborative Initiative by the American Urological Association and the Society of Abdominal Radiology Prostate Disease Focus Panel. https://www.auanet.org/guidelines/mri-of-the-prostate-sop. AUA, 2019
                                                                                  8. Hope TA et al: Imaging Prostate Cancer With Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen PET/CT and PET/MRI: Current and Future Applications. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 211(2):286-294, 2018
                                                                                  9. Weinreb JC et al: PI-RADS Prostate Imaging - Reporting and Data System: 2015, Version 2. Eur Urol. 69(1):16-40, 2016
                                                                                  10. Carter HB et al: Early detection of prostate cancer: AUA Guideline. J Urol. 190(2):419-26, 2013
                                                                                  11. Hoeks CM et al: Transition zone prostate cancer: detection and localization with 3-T multiparametric MR imaging. Radiology. 266(1):207-17, 2013
                                                                                  12. Rosenkrantz AB et al: Prostate cancer localization using multiparametric MR imaging: comparison of Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) and Likert scales. Radiology. 269(2):482-92, 2013
                                                                                  13. Kobus T et al: Prostate cancer aggressiveness: in vivo assessment of MR spectroscopy and diffusion-weighted imaging at 3 T. Radiology. 265(2):457-67, 2012
                                                                                  14. Talab SS et al: Prostate cancer imaging: what the urologist wants to know. Radiol Clin North Am. 50(6):1015-41, 2012
                                                                                  15. Verma S et al: Overview of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI in prostate cancer diagnosis and management. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 198(6):1277-88, 2012
                                                                                  16. Wu LM et al: The clinical value of diffusion-weighted imaging in combination with T2-weighted imaging in diagnosing prostate carcinoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 199(1):103-10, 2012
                                                                                  17. Akin O et al: Transition zone prostate cancers: features, detection, localization, and staging at endorectal MR imaging. Radiology. 239(3):784-92, 2006