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Prostatic Carcinoma
Katherine To'o, MD; Richard E. Fan, PhD; Geoffrey Sonn, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Imaging

    • Pathology

      • Clinical Issues

        • Diagnostic Checklist

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Abbreviations

            • Prostate carcinoma (PCa)
          • Synonyms

            • Prostate adenocarcinoma

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • Ultrasonographic Findings

              • CT Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                    • Imaging Recommendations

                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        PATHOLOGY

                        • General Features

                          • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                            • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                              • Microscopic Features

                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                • Presentation

                                  • Demographics

                                    • Natural History & Prognosis

                                      • Treatment

                                        DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                        • Consider

                                          • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                            Selected References

                                            1. Correas JM et al: Advanced ultrasound in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. World J Urol. 39(3):661-76, 2021
                                            2. Klotz L et al: Comparison of micro-ultrasound and multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging for prostate cancer: a multicenter, prospective analysis. Can Urol Assoc J. 15(1):E11-6, 2021
                                            3. Arslan A et al: Comparison of MRI, PSMA PET/CT, and Fusion PSMA PET/MRI for Detection of Clinically Significant Prostate Cancer. J Comput Assist Tomogr. ePub, 2020
                                            4. Ravi Kumar AS et al: Prostate-specific membrane antigen PET/computed tomography for staging prostate cancer. Curr Opin Urol. 30(5):628-34, 2020
                                            5. Shieh AC et al: Extraprostatic extension in prostate cancer: primer for radiologists. Abdom Radiol (NY). 45(12):4040-51, 2020
                                            6. Walker SM et al: Positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracers for prostate cancer imaging. Abdom Radiol (NY). 45(7):2165-75, 2020
                                            7. Committee on PI-RADS: Prostate Imaging Reporting And Data System v2.1, 2019. https://www.acr.org/-/media/ACR/Files/RADS/Pi-RADS/PIRADS-V2-1.pdf?la=en
                                            8. Chen FK et al: Utility of ultrasound in the diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of prostate cancer: state of the art. J Nucl Med. 57(Suppl 3):13S-8S, 2016
                                            9. Bouchelouche K et al: Advances in imaging modalities in prostate cancer. Curr Opin Oncol. 27(3):224-31, 2015
                                            10. Committee on PI-RADS: Prostate Imaging and Reporting and Data System v2. 2015. http://www.acr.org/~/media/ACR/Documents/PDF/QualitySafety/Resources/PIRADS/PIRADS%20V2.pdf
                                            11. Glazer DI et al: Mass-like peripheral zone enhancement on CT is predictive of higher-grade (Gleason 4 + 3 and higher) prostate cancer. Abdom Imaging. 40(3):560-70, 2015
                                            12. Lee JJ et al: Biologic differences between peripheral and transition zone prostate cancer. Prostate. 75(2):183-90, 2015
                                            13. Wollin DA et al: Guideline of Guidelines: Prostate Cancer Imaging. BJU Int. 116(4):526-30, 2015
                                            14. Harvey CJ et al: Applications of transrectal ultrasound in prostate cancer. Br J Radiol. 85 Spec No 1:S3-17, 2012
                                            15. Trabulsi E et al: Ultrasonography and biopsy of the prostate. In Kavoussi LR et al: Campbell-Walsh Urology. 10th ed. Saunders. 2735-47, 2011
                                            16. Trabulsi EJ et al: Enhanced transrectal ultrasound modalities in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. Urology. 76(5):1025-33, 2010
                                            17. Onur R et al: Contemporary impact of transrectal ultrasound lesions for prostate cancer detection. J Urol. 172(2):512-4, 2004
                                            18. Halpern EJ et al: Prostate: high-frequency Doppler US imaging for cancer detection. Radiology. 225(1):71-7, 2002
                                            Related Anatomy
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                                            Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                            References
                                            Tables

                                            Tables

                                            KEY FACTS

                                            • Imaging

                                              • Pathology

                                                • Clinical Issues

                                                  • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                    TERMINOLOGY

                                                    • Abbreviations

                                                      • Prostate carcinoma (PCa)
                                                    • Synonyms

                                                      • Prostate adenocarcinoma

                                                    IMAGING

                                                    • General Features

                                                      • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                        • CT Findings

                                                          • MR Findings

                                                            • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                              • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                  PATHOLOGY

                                                                  • General Features

                                                                    • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                      • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                        • Microscopic Features

                                                                          CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                          • Presentation

                                                                            • Demographics

                                                                              • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                • Treatment

                                                                                  DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                  • Consider

                                                                                    • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                      Selected References

                                                                                      1. Correas JM et al: Advanced ultrasound in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. World J Urol. 39(3):661-76, 2021
                                                                                      2. Klotz L et al: Comparison of micro-ultrasound and multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging for prostate cancer: a multicenter, prospective analysis. Can Urol Assoc J. 15(1):E11-6, 2021
                                                                                      3. Arslan A et al: Comparison of MRI, PSMA PET/CT, and Fusion PSMA PET/MRI for Detection of Clinically Significant Prostate Cancer. J Comput Assist Tomogr. ePub, 2020
                                                                                      4. Ravi Kumar AS et al: Prostate-specific membrane antigen PET/computed tomography for staging prostate cancer. Curr Opin Urol. 30(5):628-34, 2020
                                                                                      5. Shieh AC et al: Extraprostatic extension in prostate cancer: primer for radiologists. Abdom Radiol (NY). 45(12):4040-51, 2020
                                                                                      6. Walker SM et al: Positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracers for prostate cancer imaging. Abdom Radiol (NY). 45(7):2165-75, 2020
                                                                                      7. Committee on PI-RADS: Prostate Imaging Reporting And Data System v2.1, 2019. https://www.acr.org/-/media/ACR/Files/RADS/Pi-RADS/PIRADS-V2-1.pdf?la=en
                                                                                      8. Chen FK et al: Utility of ultrasound in the diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of prostate cancer: state of the art. J Nucl Med. 57(Suppl 3):13S-8S, 2016
                                                                                      9. Bouchelouche K et al: Advances in imaging modalities in prostate cancer. Curr Opin Oncol. 27(3):224-31, 2015
                                                                                      10. Committee on PI-RADS: Prostate Imaging and Reporting and Data System v2. 2015. http://www.acr.org/~/media/ACR/Documents/PDF/QualitySafety/Resources/PIRADS/PIRADS%20V2.pdf
                                                                                      11. Glazer DI et al: Mass-like peripheral zone enhancement on CT is predictive of higher-grade (Gleason 4 + 3 and higher) prostate cancer. Abdom Imaging. 40(3):560-70, 2015
                                                                                      12. Lee JJ et al: Biologic differences between peripheral and transition zone prostate cancer. Prostate. 75(2):183-90, 2015
                                                                                      13. Wollin DA et al: Guideline of Guidelines: Prostate Cancer Imaging. BJU Int. 116(4):526-30, 2015
                                                                                      14. Harvey CJ et al: Applications of transrectal ultrasound in prostate cancer. Br J Radiol. 85 Spec No 1:S3-17, 2012
                                                                                      15. Trabulsi E et al: Ultrasonography and biopsy of the prostate. In Kavoussi LR et al: Campbell-Walsh Urology. 10th ed. Saunders. 2735-47, 2011
                                                                                      16. Trabulsi EJ et al: Enhanced transrectal ultrasound modalities in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. Urology. 76(5):1025-33, 2010
                                                                                      17. Onur R et al: Contemporary impact of transrectal ultrasound lesions for prostate cancer detection. J Urol. 172(2):512-4, 2004
                                                                                      18. Halpern EJ et al: Prostate: high-frequency Doppler US imaging for cancer detection. Radiology. 225(1):71-7, 2002