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Pterygoid Venous Plexus Asymmetry
Bronwyn E. Hamilton, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Diagnostic Checklist

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Abbreviations

            • Pterygoid venous plexus (PVP) asymmetry
          • Synonyms

            • Pterygoid plexus
          • Definitions

            • Unilateral prominence of deep facial venous network draining cavernous sinus
              • Usually incidental finding at time of brain or neck imaging
                • May be secondary to carotid cavernous fistula (CCF)

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • CT Findings

              • MR Findings

                • Angiographic Findings

                  • Imaging Recommendations

                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                      PATHOLOGY

                      • General Features

                        • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                          CLINICAL ISSUES

                          • Presentation

                            • Demographics

                              • Natural History & Prognosis

                                • Treatment

                                  DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                  • Consider

                                    Selected References

                                    1. Kim E et al: MRI and MR angiography findings to differentiate jugular venous reflux from cavernous dural arteriovenous fistula. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 202(4):839-46, 2014
                                    2. Watanabe K et al: Normal flow signal of the pterygoid plexus on 3T MRA in patients without DAVF of the cavernous sinus. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 34(6):1232-6, 2013
                                    3. Oshima T et al: Involvement of pterygoid venous plexus in patulous eustachian tube symptoms. Acta Otolaryngol. 127(7):693-9, 2007
                                    4. Tanoue S et al: Para-cavernous sinus venous structures: anatomic variations and pathologic conditions evaluated on fat-suppressed 3D fast gradient-echo MR images. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 27(5):1083-9, 2006
                                    5. Schievink WI et al: Spontaneous carotid-jugular fistula and carotid dissection in a patient with multiple intracranial arachnoid cysts and hemifacial atrophy: a generalized connective tissue disorder? Case report. J Neurosurg. 83(3):546-9, 1995
                                    6. Lanzieri CF et al: The significance of asymmetry of the foramen of Vesalius. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 9(6):1201-4, 1988
                                    Related Anatomy
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                                    Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                    References
                                    Tables

                                    Tables

                                    KEY FACTS

                                    • Terminology

                                      • Imaging

                                        • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                          • Diagnostic Checklist

                                            TERMINOLOGY

                                            • Abbreviations

                                              • Pterygoid venous plexus (PVP) asymmetry
                                            • Synonyms

                                              • Pterygoid plexus
                                            • Definitions

                                              • Unilateral prominence of deep facial venous network draining cavernous sinus
                                                • Usually incidental finding at time of brain or neck imaging
                                                  • May be secondary to carotid cavernous fistula (CCF)

                                            IMAGING

                                            • General Features

                                              • CT Findings

                                                • MR Findings

                                                  • Angiographic Findings

                                                    • Imaging Recommendations

                                                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                        PATHOLOGY

                                                        • General Features

                                                          • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                            • Presentation

                                                              • Demographics

                                                                • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                  • Treatment

                                                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                    • Consider

                                                                      Selected References

                                                                      1. Kim E et al: MRI and MR angiography findings to differentiate jugular venous reflux from cavernous dural arteriovenous fistula. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 202(4):839-46, 2014
                                                                      2. Watanabe K et al: Normal flow signal of the pterygoid plexus on 3T MRA in patients without DAVF of the cavernous sinus. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 34(6):1232-6, 2013
                                                                      3. Oshima T et al: Involvement of pterygoid venous plexus in patulous eustachian tube symptoms. Acta Otolaryngol. 127(7):693-9, 2007
                                                                      4. Tanoue S et al: Para-cavernous sinus venous structures: anatomic variations and pathologic conditions evaluated on fat-suppressed 3D fast gradient-echo MR images. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 27(5):1083-9, 2006
                                                                      5. Schievink WI et al: Spontaneous carotid-jugular fistula and carotid dissection in a patient with multiple intracranial arachnoid cysts and hemifacial atrophy: a generalized connective tissue disorder? Case report. J Neurosurg. 83(3):546-9, 1995
                                                                      6. Lanzieri CF et al: The significance of asymmetry of the foramen of Vesalius. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 9(6):1201-4, 1988