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Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformation
Sherief H. Garrana, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            • Diagnostic Checklist

              TERMINOLOGY

              • Abbreviations

                • Pulmonary arteriovenous malformation (PAVM)
              • Synonyms

                • Pulmonary arteriovenous aneurysm (PAVA), pulmonary arteriovenous fistula, pulmonary angioma, cavernous hemangioma
              • Definitions

                • Direct communication between pulmonary artery(ies) and pulmonary vein(s), right-to-left shunt
                  • Congenital (80-90%): Isolated or related to hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT)/Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome
                  • Acquired (10-20%): Hepatopulmonary syndrome, post-surgical, post-traumatic, post-infectious (actinomycosis, schistosomiasis), metastases, following surgery for complex cyanotic congenital heart disease

              IMAGING

              • General Features

                • Radiographic Findings

                  • CT Findings

                    • MR Findings

                      • Echocardiographic Findings

                        • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                          • Imaging Recommendations

                            DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                              PATHOLOGY

                              • General Features

                                • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                  • Presentation

                                    • Demographics

                                      • Diagnosis

                                        • Natural History & Prognosis

                                          • Treatment

                                            DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                            • Consider

                                              • Reporting Tips

                                                Selected References

                                                1. Contegiacomo A et al: Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations: what the interventional radiologist needs to know. Radiol Med. 124(10):973-88, 2019
                                                2. Saboo SS et al: Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations: diagnosis. Cardiovasc Diagn Ther. 8(3):325-37, 2018
                                                3. Tellapuri S et al: Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations. Int J Cardiovasc Imaging. 35(8):1421-8, 2018
                                                4. Ryan DJ et al: Follow-up interval for small untreated pulmonary arteriovenous malformations in hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia. Clin Radiol. 72(3):236-41, 2017
                                                5. Faughnan ME et al: International guidelines for the diagnosis and management of hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia. J Med Genet. 48(2):73-87, 2011
                                                6. Trerotola SO et al: PAVM embolization: an update. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 195(4):837-45, 2010
                                                7. Pierucci P et al: New definition and natural history of patients with diffuse pulmonary arteriovenous malformations: twenty-seven-year experience. Chest. 133(3):653-61, 2008
                                                Related Anatomy
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                                                Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                                References
                                                Tables

                                                Tables

                                                KEY FACTS

                                                • Terminology

                                                  • Imaging

                                                    • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                      • Pathology

                                                        • Clinical Issues

                                                          • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                            TERMINOLOGY

                                                            • Abbreviations

                                                              • Pulmonary arteriovenous malformation (PAVM)
                                                            • Synonyms

                                                              • Pulmonary arteriovenous aneurysm (PAVA), pulmonary arteriovenous fistula, pulmonary angioma, cavernous hemangioma
                                                            • Definitions

                                                              • Direct communication between pulmonary artery(ies) and pulmonary vein(s), right-to-left shunt
                                                                • Congenital (80-90%): Isolated or related to hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT)/Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome
                                                                • Acquired (10-20%): Hepatopulmonary syndrome, post-surgical, post-traumatic, post-infectious (actinomycosis, schistosomiasis), metastases, following surgery for complex cyanotic congenital heart disease

                                                            IMAGING

                                                            • General Features

                                                              • Radiographic Findings

                                                                • CT Findings

                                                                  • MR Findings

                                                                    • Echocardiographic Findings

                                                                      • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                                        • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                            PATHOLOGY

                                                                            • General Features

                                                                              • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                                • Presentation

                                                                                  • Demographics

                                                                                    • Diagnosis

                                                                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                        • Treatment

                                                                                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                          • Consider

                                                                                            • Reporting Tips

                                                                                              Selected References

                                                                                              1. Contegiacomo A et al: Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations: what the interventional radiologist needs to know. Radiol Med. 124(10):973-88, 2019
                                                                                              2. Saboo SS et al: Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations: diagnosis. Cardiovasc Diagn Ther. 8(3):325-37, 2018
                                                                                              3. Tellapuri S et al: Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations. Int J Cardiovasc Imaging. 35(8):1421-8, 2018
                                                                                              4. Ryan DJ et al: Follow-up interval for small untreated pulmonary arteriovenous malformations in hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia. Clin Radiol. 72(3):236-41, 2017
                                                                                              5. Faughnan ME et al: International guidelines for the diagnosis and management of hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia. J Med Genet. 48(2):73-87, 2011
                                                                                              6. Trerotola SO et al: PAVM embolization: an update. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 195(4):837-45, 2010
                                                                                              7. Pierucci P et al: New definition and natural history of patients with diffuse pulmonary arteriovenous malformations: twenty-seven-year experience. Chest. 133(3):653-61, 2008