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Pulmonary Artery Stenosis
Randy R. Richardson, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Clinical Issues

        TERMINOLOGY

        • Abbreviations

          • Pulmonary stenosis (PS)
        • Definitions

          • Stenosis at level of infundibulum, pulmonary valve, supravalvar main pulmonary artery, or branches of pulmonary artery
          • Pulmonary valvar stenosis is most common (> 90%)

        IMAGING

        • General Features

          • Radiographic Findings

            • CT Findings

              • MR Findings

                • Echocardiographic Findings

                  • Angiographic Findings

                    • Imaging Recommendations

                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        PATHOLOGY

                        • General Features

                          • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                            • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                              • Microscopic Features

                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                • Presentation

                                  • Demographics

                                    • Natural History & Prognosis

                                      • Treatment

                                        DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                          Selected References

                                          1. Newman B et al: Congenital central pulmonary artery anomalies: part 1. Pediatr Radiol. 50(8):1022-9, 2020
                                          2. Newman B et al: Congenital central pulmonary artery anomalies: part 2. Pediatr Radiol. 50(8):1030-40, 2020
                                          3. Abdel Razek AAK et al: Imaging of pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 43(6):906-11, 2019
                                          4. Collins RT 2nd et al: Real-time transthoracic vector flow imaging of the heart in pediatric patients. Prog Pediatr Cardiol. 53:28-36, 2019
                                          5. Escalon JG et al: Congenital anomalies of the pulmonary arteries: an imaging overview. Br J Radiol. 92(1093):20180185, 2019
                                          6. Mouws EMJP et al: Tetralogy of Fallot in the current era. Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 31(3):496-504, 2019
                                          7. Alkashkari W et al: Transcatheter pulmonary valve replacement: current state of art. Curr Cardiol Rep. 20(4):27, 2018
                                          8. Pignatelli RH et al: Imaging of the pulmonary valve in the adults. Curr Opin Cardiol. 32(5):529-40, 2017
                                          9. Roberts WC et al: Full development of consequences of congenital pulmonic stenosis in eighty-four years. Am J Cardiol. 119(8):1284-7, 2017
                                          10. Jonas SN et al: Pulmonary valve anatomy and abnormalities: a pictorial essay of radiography, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). J Thorac Imaging. 31(1):W4-12, 2016
                                          11. Massoud I et al: Restrictive right ventricular performance assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance after balloon valvuloplasty of critical pulmonary valve stenosis. Cardiol Young. 1-13, 2015
                                          12. Shin YR et al: Pulmonary valve cusp augmentation for pulmonary regurgitation after repair of valvular pulmonary stenosis. Ann Thorac Surg. 99(3):e57-8, 2015
                                          13. Rajiah P et al: CT and MRI of pulmonary valvular abnormalities. Clin Radiol. 69(6):630-8, 2014
                                          14. Ahmed S et al: Role of multidetector CT in assessment of repaired tetralogy of Fallot. Radiographics. 33(4):1023-36, 2013
                                          15. Myerson SG: Valvular and hemodynamic assessment with CMR. Heart Fail Clin. 5(3):389-400, vi-vii, 2009
                                          16. Wang XM et al: Clinical application of 64-slice spiral CT in the diagnosis of the Tetralogy of Fallot. Eur J Radiol. 64(2):296-301, 2007
                                          17. Braunwald E: Valvular heart disease. In Braunwald E: Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine. 6th ed. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders, 2001
                                          Related Anatomy
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                                          Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                          References
                                          Tables

                                          Tables

                                          KEY FACTS

                                          • Terminology

                                            • Imaging

                                              • Clinical Issues

                                                TERMINOLOGY

                                                • Abbreviations

                                                  • Pulmonary stenosis (PS)
                                                • Definitions

                                                  • Stenosis at level of infundibulum, pulmonary valve, supravalvar main pulmonary artery, or branches of pulmonary artery
                                                  • Pulmonary valvar stenosis is most common (> 90%)

                                                IMAGING

                                                • General Features

                                                  • Radiographic Findings

                                                    • CT Findings

                                                      • MR Findings

                                                        • Echocardiographic Findings

                                                          • Angiographic Findings

                                                            • Imaging Recommendations

                                                              DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                PATHOLOGY

                                                                • General Features

                                                                  • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                    • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                      • Microscopic Features

                                                                        CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                        • Presentation

                                                                          • Demographics

                                                                            • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                              • Treatment

                                                                                DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                  Selected References

                                                                                  1. Newman B et al: Congenital central pulmonary artery anomalies: part 1. Pediatr Radiol. 50(8):1022-9, 2020
                                                                                  2. Newman B et al: Congenital central pulmonary artery anomalies: part 2. Pediatr Radiol. 50(8):1030-40, 2020
                                                                                  3. Abdel Razek AAK et al: Imaging of pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 43(6):906-11, 2019
                                                                                  4. Collins RT 2nd et al: Real-time transthoracic vector flow imaging of the heart in pediatric patients. Prog Pediatr Cardiol. 53:28-36, 2019
                                                                                  5. Escalon JG et al: Congenital anomalies of the pulmonary arteries: an imaging overview. Br J Radiol. 92(1093):20180185, 2019
                                                                                  6. Mouws EMJP et al: Tetralogy of Fallot in the current era. Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 31(3):496-504, 2019
                                                                                  7. Alkashkari W et al: Transcatheter pulmonary valve replacement: current state of art. Curr Cardiol Rep. 20(4):27, 2018
                                                                                  8. Pignatelli RH et al: Imaging of the pulmonary valve in the adults. Curr Opin Cardiol. 32(5):529-40, 2017
                                                                                  9. Roberts WC et al: Full development of consequences of congenital pulmonic stenosis in eighty-four years. Am J Cardiol. 119(8):1284-7, 2017
                                                                                  10. Jonas SN et al: Pulmonary valve anatomy and abnormalities: a pictorial essay of radiography, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). J Thorac Imaging. 31(1):W4-12, 2016
                                                                                  11. Massoud I et al: Restrictive right ventricular performance assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance after balloon valvuloplasty of critical pulmonary valve stenosis. Cardiol Young. 1-13, 2015
                                                                                  12. Shin YR et al: Pulmonary valve cusp augmentation for pulmonary regurgitation after repair of valvular pulmonary stenosis. Ann Thorac Surg. 99(3):e57-8, 2015
                                                                                  13. Rajiah P et al: CT and MRI of pulmonary valvular abnormalities. Clin Radiol. 69(6):630-8, 2014
                                                                                  14. Ahmed S et al: Role of multidetector CT in assessment of repaired tetralogy of Fallot. Radiographics. 33(4):1023-36, 2013
                                                                                  15. Myerson SG: Valvular and hemodynamic assessment with CMR. Heart Fail Clin. 5(3):389-400, vi-vii, 2009
                                                                                  16. Wang XM et al: Clinical application of 64-slice spiral CT in the diagnosis of the Tetralogy of Fallot. Eur J Radiol. 64(2):296-301, 2007
                                                                                  17. Braunwald E: Valvular heart disease. In Braunwald E: Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine. 6th ed. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders, 2001