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Pulmonary Carcinoid Tumor
Jennifer Schroeder, MD; John M. Holbert, MD, FACR
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      TERMINOLOGY

      • Definitions

        • Carcinoid tumors are neuroendocrine tumors (NET)
          • Arise from neural crest cells
          • Normally express low levels of human somatostatin receptor (SSTR)
          • 5 sub-types of SSTR (1-5)
          • NET express varying levels of SSTR depending on level of differentiation
          • These types of tumors are widely distributed
            • Lung
            • Gastrointestinal tract, with most common location being small intestines
        • Carcinoid syndrome (CS): Occurs in 10% of carcinoid tumors
          • Symptoms: Flushing, diarrhea, telangiectasia, and asthma

      IMAGING

      • Nuclear Medicine Findings

        • CT Findings

          • MR Findings

            DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

              PATHOLOGY

              • General Features

                • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                  • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                    • Microscopic Features

                      CLINICAL ISSUES

                      • Presentation

                        • Demographics

                          • Natural History & Prognosis

                            • Treatment

                              DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                              • Consider

                                Selected References

                                1. Bozkurt MF et al: Guideline for PET/CT imaging of neuroendocrine neoplasms with 68Ga-DOTA-conjugated somatostatin receptor targeting peptides and 18F-DOPA. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. ePub, 2017
                                2. Yamaga LYI et al: 68Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT in nonneuroendocrine tumors: A pictorial essay. Clin Nucl Med. 42(6):e313-e316, 2017
                                3. Deppen SA et al: Safety and efficacy of 68Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT for diagnosis, staging, and treatment management of neuroendocrine tumors. J Nucl Med. 57(5):708-14, 2016
                                4. Lococo F et al: Multicenter comparison of 18F-FDG and 68Ga-DOTA-peptide PET/CT for pulmonary carcinoid. Clin Nucl Med. 40(3):e183-9, 2015
                                Related Anatomy
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                                Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                References
                                Tables

                                Tables

                                KEY FACTS

                                • Terminology

                                  • Imaging

                                    TERMINOLOGY

                                    • Definitions

                                      • Carcinoid tumors are neuroendocrine tumors (NET)
                                        • Arise from neural crest cells
                                        • Normally express low levels of human somatostatin receptor (SSTR)
                                        • 5 sub-types of SSTR (1-5)
                                        • NET express varying levels of SSTR depending on level of differentiation
                                        • These types of tumors are widely distributed
                                          • Lung
                                          • Gastrointestinal tract, with most common location being small intestines
                                      • Carcinoid syndrome (CS): Occurs in 10% of carcinoid tumors
                                        • Symptoms: Flushing, diarrhea, telangiectasia, and asthma

                                    IMAGING

                                    • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                      • CT Findings

                                        • MR Findings

                                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                            PATHOLOGY

                                            • General Features

                                              • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                  • Microscopic Features

                                                    CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                    • Presentation

                                                      • Demographics

                                                        • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                          • Treatment

                                                            DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                            • Consider

                                                              Selected References

                                                              1. Bozkurt MF et al: Guideline for PET/CT imaging of neuroendocrine neoplasms with 68Ga-DOTA-conjugated somatostatin receptor targeting peptides and 18F-DOPA. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. ePub, 2017
                                                              2. Yamaga LYI et al: 68Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT in nonneuroendocrine tumors: A pictorial essay. Clin Nucl Med. 42(6):e313-e316, 2017
                                                              3. Deppen SA et al: Safety and efficacy of 68Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT for diagnosis, staging, and treatment management of neuroendocrine tumors. J Nucl Med. 57(5):708-14, 2016
                                                              4. Lococo F et al: Multicenter comparison of 18F-FDG and 68Ga-DOTA-peptide PET/CT for pulmonary carcinoid. Clin Nucl Med. 40(3):e183-9, 2015