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Pulmonary Edema
Melissa L. Rosado-de-Christenson, MD, FACR
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      TERMINOLOGY

      • Definitions

        • Pulmonary edema: Abnormal accumulation of extravascular lung water
          • Hydrostatic edema
            • Common etiologies
              • Cardiogenic edema: Elevated pulmonary capillary pressure (left-sided heart failure)
              • Fluid overload: Renal failure
            • Uncommon etiologies
              • Pulmonary edema associated with acute asthma
              • Postobstructive pulmonary edema
              • Pulmonary edema associated with acute and chronic thromboembolism
              • Pulmonary edema associated with pulmonary venoocclusive disease
              • Near drowning
          • Permeability edema with diffuse alveolar damage (DAD)
            • Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)
          • Permeability edema without DAD
            • Opiate overdose edema
            • Transfusion-related lung injury (TRALI): Dyspnea, hypoxemia and bilateral pulmonary opacities within 6 hours after transfusion of blood products
            • High-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE)
          • Mixed edema: Both hydrostatic and permeability edema
            • Neurogenic pulmonary edema
            • Reexpansion pulmonary edema
            • Reperfusion edema
            • Edema following lung transplantation
            • Postpneumonectomy pulmonary edema

      IMAGING

      • Radiographic Findings

        • CT Findings

          • Imaging Recommendations

            DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

              PATHOLOGY

              • General Features

                • Microscopic Features

                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                  • Presentation

                    • Natural History & Prognosis

                      • Treatment

                        DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                        • Consider

                          Selected References

                          1. Bentz MR et al: Intensive care unit imaging. Clin Chest Med. 36(2):219-234, 2015
                          2. Vlaar AP et al: Transfusion-related acute lung injury: a clinical review. Lancet. 382(9896):984-94, 2013
                          3. Sakellaridis T et al: Re-expansion pulmonary edema in a patient with total pneumothorax: a hazardous outcome. Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 60(9):614-7, 2012
                          4. Chatterjee K. The Swan-Ganz catheters: past et al: A viewpoint. Circulation. 2009 Jan 6;119(1):147-52. Erratum in: Circulation. 119(21):e548, 2009
                          5. Evans DC et al: Complications associated with pulmonary artery catheters: a comprehensive clinical review. Scand J Surg. 98(4):199-208, 2009
                          6. Wang CS et al: Does this dyspneic patient in the emergency department have congestive heart failure? JAMA. 294(15):1944-56, 2005
                          7. Ware LB et al: Clinical practice. acute pulmonary edema. N Engl J Med. 353(26):2788-96, 2005
                          8. Gehlbach BK et al: The pulmonary manifestations of left heart failure. Chest. 125(2):669-82, 2004
                          9. Gluecker T et al: Clinical and radiologic features of pulmonary edema. Radiographics. 19(6):1507-31; discussion 1532-3, 1999
                          10. Woolley K et al: Pulmonary parenchymal manifestations of mitral valve disease. Radiographics. 19(4):965-72, 1999
                          11. Ketai LH et al: A new view of pulmonary edema and acute respiratory distress syndrome. J Thorac Imaging. 13(3):147-71, 1998
                          Related Anatomy
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                          Related Differential Diagnoses
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                          References
                          Tables

                          Tables

                          KEY FACTS

                          • Terminology

                            • Imaging

                              TERMINOLOGY

                              • Definitions

                                • Pulmonary edema: Abnormal accumulation of extravascular lung water
                                  • Hydrostatic edema
                                    • Common etiologies
                                      • Cardiogenic edema: Elevated pulmonary capillary pressure (left-sided heart failure)
                                      • Fluid overload: Renal failure
                                    • Uncommon etiologies
                                      • Pulmonary edema associated with acute asthma
                                      • Postobstructive pulmonary edema
                                      • Pulmonary edema associated with acute and chronic thromboembolism
                                      • Pulmonary edema associated with pulmonary venoocclusive disease
                                      • Near drowning
                                  • Permeability edema with diffuse alveolar damage (DAD)
                                    • Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)
                                  • Permeability edema without DAD
                                    • Opiate overdose edema
                                    • Transfusion-related lung injury (TRALI): Dyspnea, hypoxemia and bilateral pulmonary opacities within 6 hours after transfusion of blood products
                                    • High-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE)
                                  • Mixed edema: Both hydrostatic and permeability edema
                                    • Neurogenic pulmonary edema
                                    • Reexpansion pulmonary edema
                                    • Reperfusion edema
                                    • Edema following lung transplantation
                                    • Postpneumonectomy pulmonary edema

                              IMAGING

                              • Radiographic Findings

                                • CT Findings

                                  • Imaging Recommendations

                                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                      PATHOLOGY

                                      • General Features

                                        • Microscopic Features

                                          CLINICAL ISSUES

                                          • Presentation

                                            • Natural History & Prognosis

                                              • Treatment

                                                DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                • Consider

                                                  Selected References

                                                  1. Bentz MR et al: Intensive care unit imaging. Clin Chest Med. 36(2):219-234, 2015
                                                  2. Vlaar AP et al: Transfusion-related acute lung injury: a clinical review. Lancet. 382(9896):984-94, 2013
                                                  3. Sakellaridis T et al: Re-expansion pulmonary edema in a patient with total pneumothorax: a hazardous outcome. Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 60(9):614-7, 2012
                                                  4. Chatterjee K. The Swan-Ganz catheters: past et al: A viewpoint. Circulation. 2009 Jan 6;119(1):147-52. Erratum in: Circulation. 119(21):e548, 2009
                                                  5. Evans DC et al: Complications associated with pulmonary artery catheters: a comprehensive clinical review. Scand J Surg. 98(4):199-208, 2009
                                                  6. Wang CS et al: Does this dyspneic patient in the emergency department have congestive heart failure? JAMA. 294(15):1944-56, 2005
                                                  7. Ware LB et al: Clinical practice. acute pulmonary edema. N Engl J Med. 353(26):2788-96, 2005
                                                  8. Gehlbach BK et al: The pulmonary manifestations of left heart failure. Chest. 125(2):669-82, 2004
                                                  9. Gluecker T et al: Clinical and radiologic features of pulmonary edema. Radiographics. 19(6):1507-31; discussion 1532-3, 1999
                                                  10. Woolley K et al: Pulmonary parenchymal manifestations of mitral valve disease. Radiographics. 19(4):965-72, 1999
                                                  11. Ketai LH et al: A new view of pulmonary edema and acute respiratory distress syndrome. J Thorac Imaging. 13(3):147-71, 1998